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CHAPTER 6 Strings
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<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 10 Transitional//EN"> <html xmlns="http://wwww3org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <title>Concatenating a string</title> </head> <body> <script language="Javascript" type="text/javascript"> <!-var newString = 'Bob' + 'Smith' alert(newString) --> </script> </body> </html>
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This JavaScript is very similar to other scripts that you ve seen in this book, so we ll focus on the statements that concatenate two strings The rst statement in the script declares the variable newString and initializes it with the concatenation of Bob and Smith The second statement calls the alert() function to display the value of the newString variable on the screen Look carefully at the text displayed in the alert() function (Figure 6-1), and you ll notice something strange You expect to see a space between Bob and Smith, but no space appears here This is a common problem whenever you concatenate two strings; the browser does exactly what you tell it to do, and not necessarily what you hoped it would do You told the browser to take Smith and place it behind Bob The result is BobSmith You need to tell the browser to add a space character between these two strings by adding a space after 'Bob' Rewrite the previous script and add the space character as the last character in the string 'Bob'; then reload the web page (Figure 6-2) The preceding example concatenated literal strings You can also concatenate two variables or a variable and a string using the same technique Here is how you write such a statement:
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NewString = FirstString + VariableName
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Figure 6-1
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The browser displays the concatenated string
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Figure 6-2 You must place a space as the last character in the string 'Bob' to make sure the space appears between the rst and last names in the concatenated string
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Let s rewrite the previous statements and assign the space to a variable; then we ll concatenate the variable to Bob and concatenate Smith to the variable Here s the new code segment:
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var space = ' ' var newString = 'Bob' + space + 'Smith'
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Here s an alternative In this code segment, strings are assigned to variables, and then we concatenate all three variables:
var var var var FirstName = 'Bob' LastName = 'Smith' space = ' ' newString = FirstName + space + LastName
Finding Your Way Around a String
You know that a string is an array of characters You recall from 4 that an array has one or more elements that are identi ed by an index Each character in a string is an array element that can be identi ed by its index Take a look at the following example to see how this works:
var FirstName = 'Bob'
You recognize that 'Bob' is a string that is assigned to the variable FirstName This variable is actually an array The rst element of the array has the value B The second element has the value o and the last element has the value b Remember that the index of the rst element is 0 and not 1 Therefore, you use the index 0 to reference B and 1 to reference o and 2 to reference b You can copy a character from a string to another string by using the charAt() method of the string object The charAt() method requires one argument, which
CHAPTER 6 Strings
is the index of the character that you want to copy The following statement illustrates how to use the charAt() method:
var SingleCharacter = NameOfStringObjectcharAt(index)
The next example shows how to display the rst character of the string 'Bob' by calling the charAt() method (Figure 6-3)
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 10 Transitional//EN"> <html xmlns="http://wwww3org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <title>Copy one character of a string</title> </head> <body> <script language="Javascript" type="text/javascript"> <!-var FirstName = 'Bob' var Character = FirstNamecharAt(0) alert(Character) --> </script> </body> </html>
Sometimes you won t know the index of the character you need because the string is supplied to your JavaScript when the script runs This occurs, for example, when the person who runs your JavaScript enters the string You can determine the index of a character by calling the indexOf() method of the string object The indexOf() method returns the index of the character passed to it as an argument If the character is not in the string, the method returns 1 You should usually check for this when executing this function Here s how to use this method:
var IndexValue = stringindexOf('character')
This next example calls the indexOf() method to return the index of the second letter of 'Bob' The index is then passed to the charAt() method to copy
Figure 6-3
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