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Accurate placement of reinforcing bars is necessary for the masonry member to achieve its intended strength capacity Relatively small misalignments in a narrow masonry wall can result in a significant reduction in strength Therefore, the distance that a reinforcing bar can be placed away from its design position is limited by code For out-of-plane bending, which pertains to the depth of a bar in a lintel or beam or to the position of a vertical bar in a wall relative to the wall thickness, the permitted tolerances are based on the specified
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Placement of Reinforcement, Ties/Anchors, and Flashing
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Placement Tolerances for Reinforcement Allowable Tolerance for Mild Steel 1 2 in 1 in 11 4 in Allowable Tolerance for Prestressing Steel 1 4 in 3 8 in 3 8 in
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Specified Distance d from Face of Wall or Flexural Element to Center of Reinforcement* d 8 in 8 in < d 24 in d 24 in
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*Refer to Figure 77
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(Specification for Masonry Structures, ACI 5301/ASCE 6/TMS 602, Masonry Standards Joint Committee, 1999)
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distance from the face of the wall or beam to the center of the reinforcing bar The allowable tolerances are listed in Table 77 and are graphically shown in Figure 77 When the reinforcement consists of prestressing steel rather than mild reinforcing steel, the acceptable tolerances are smaller The reason for the stricter requirements
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FIGURE 77 Placement Tolerances for Reinforcement
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(NCMA, Annotated Design and Construction Details for Concrete Masonry, Herndon, VA, 2003)
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FIGURE 78 Reinforcing Bar Positioners
(Beall & Jaffe, Concrete and Masonry Databook, McGraw-Hill, 2003 and Panarese, Kosmatka, & Randall, Concrete Masonry Handbook, PCA, 1991)
is because tensioned prestressing steel imposes an additional compressive load on the masonry Misalignment increases the compressive load, which could lead to a sudden, brittle masonry failure The tolerance for placement of reinforcement parallel to the length of the wall is more lenient that the tolerances perpendicular
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to the length of the wall In this direction, the permitted tolerance is plus or minus 2 inches for mild steel reinforcement and plus or minus 1 inch for prestressing steel reinforcement Accessories are available to assist in maintaining the specified placement of reinforcing bars Reinforcing bar positioners can be used to accurately place both horizontal and vertical reinforcement, either with individual positioners or with accessories that support bars in both directions Several types of positioners are shown in Figure 78 Use of these positioners is not required by IBC or MSJC These codes instead stipulate a performance requirement of adhering to the tolerance limitations
PLACEMENT OF JOINT REINFORCEMENT
Joint reinforcement is placed in masonry bed joints between courses of masonry units It is used to connect together multiple wythes of masonry to help the wall resist lateral loads when the wall spans horizontally, or to help concrete masonry resist tensile stresses that develop as the material dries and shrinks For each of these uses, the mortar must adequately encapsulate the longitudinal wires in the joint reinforcement in order for the reinforcement to be effective If the wires are too large relative to the joint width, the wires will not be properly encapsulated Therefore, the size of the wire that can be placed in a mortar joint is limited to no more than one-half the mortar joint thickness, as illustrated in Figure 79 Various types of joint reinforcement were presented in 3 The designer-of-record generally selects the appropriate type of joint reinforcement to be used in the construction based on the masonry unit materials that will be used, the type of masonry
It is acceptable to place joint reinforcement directly on the masonry unit surface prior to placing the mortar bed Studies have shown that the longitudinal wires are sufficiently encapsulated with mortar during normal, subsequent placement of mortar and units