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In general, Faces components represent the time-tested abstraction technique of objectoriented programming in which the implementation details of the component are hidden from the user of the component Instead he or she simply needs to understand the component s usage contract It is not necessary to know the internal workings of the component Further coverage of the different helper-components of UI components are detailed later in the chapter and numerous examples are provided in 13 Because of its emphasis on building user interfaces from reusable and adaptable components, the Faces UI component technology is often compared to Microsoft s ASPNet component, or control (as used in Microsoft s terminology) technology This is no coincidence, since they both represent the most efficient way to build Web user interfaces However, component-based Web development did not start with ASPNet and JSF The following brief history of component-based Web development shows how the trend emerged even before ASP and JSF
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The main benefit of JavaServer Faces is its standard component model The existence of a widely accepted standard component model enables Web developers to choose from a wide variety of components from disparate sources that are tailored to different application domains to build their applications For example, as a developer, you could obtain a world-class reporting component from Business Objects, a production-quality GIS mapping component from ESRI, a feature-rich charting component from ILOG, and so on, and put them all together into your own application The ability to create a true, reusable UI component, and package it together in an easily deployable form, is the distinguishing characteristic of a component-based framework Any framework lacking this characteristic is not component-based Of course, Web development wasn t always so easy Let s review a little Web development history to understand the merits of component-based development and to see why JavaServer Faces has adopted this approach As the Web transitioned from a predominantly static environment with simple home page type Web sites to a rich and dynamic environment containing the latest e-commerce applications, Web development technologies have evolved into component-based architectures This is primarily because of the inherent complications in providing a rich and dynamic end-user experience over a nonsynchronous Web/HTTP environment that was designed primarily for static document retrieval For this reason, Web application development has always been a bit of an art Because of the lack of a single standard other than HTTP/HTML, Web application development has generally been accomplished through a myriad of different approaches and technologies Early Web applications tended to be simplistic in nature, often just displaying small portions of dynamic data using simple CGI back-end processes These simple back-end processes would also process incoming form values HTTP and CGI were adequate technologies to handle these basic types of Web applications As businesses soon saw the advantages of having business applications run over the Web or local TCP/IP intranet networks, traditional client/server applications began transitioning over to Web/HTTP-based architectures This created an increasing need for more complex user interfaces similar to those that have been around since the beginning of client/server application development However, because of the lack of standards for building these ever more complex user interfaces for the Web, a number of different approaches have been tried, but with mixed success
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To solve the increasing complexities of building sophisticated user interfaces for the Web, different technologies began to offer a component-centric approach to application development Technologies such as Cold Fusion and Microsoft s Active Server Pages (ASP) began offering intelligent sets of components to assemble Web applications With more intelligent Web components, developers could take advantage of prebuilt, sophisticated components that took on more user interface responsibilities For example, a datagrid, which is a common yet fairly sophisticated component in many user interface technologies, can render a grid of dynamic data, possibly from a database, while handling user input gestures to scroll or page through data Other, more sophisticated components, such as a JavaScript-enabled pop-up date picker, offered features that (in most cases) would be too time-consuming to be implemented by hand As Web application development continued to explode, having prebuilt, sophisticated Web components reduced Web development complexity and also increased the power of the Web developer to create increasingly sophisticated user interfaces As both ASP and other component technologies began to simplify Web application development, the enterprise Java community began to catch up with custom JSP tag libraries and frameworks In contrast to ASP and other non-Java Web technologies, enterprise Java component technology for Web development has largely been led by Open Source projects through the Apache Jakarta project For example, the JavaServer Page Standard Tag Library (JSTL), which was basically an amalgamation of helpful Web development custom JSP tag libraries, was developed through the auspices of the Apache Jakarta project JSTL includes custom tag libraries for handling basic Web development tasks such as rendering and iterating through data, and working with XML as well as SQL JSTL, however, did not offer sophisticated user interface components, and JSTL users often had to write a fair amount of code to develop more sophisticated user interfaces using the JSTL tags In addition to custom tag libraries, enterprise Java also saw the introduction of complete Web development frameworks These provided aid to user interface development and also offered a complete infrastructure for developing Web applications that followed the ModelView-Controller design paradigm The most notable of these technologies also came from the Apache Jakarta project and is known as Struts With Struts, a complete infrastructure is provided within the framework, including a basic user interface or presentation -oriented set of components in the form of custom tag libraries In contrast to JSTL, however, Struts also provides a Controller servlet and a complete infrastructure for building Web applications fully adherent to the MVC design methodology While Struts does provide an MVC framework, it cannot be said to have a true user interface component model Yes, it is possible to drop in custom tags to do various things such as client-side validation and extended form support, but there really is no single or standard way to package specific UI functionality together into a reusable component, such as a chart or an e-mail tool For this reason, Java Web development frameworks such as Struts (along with others, including Velocity and WebObjects) may not be considered to offer a true component-centric approach to building user interfaces, while frameworks such as JSF, Tapestry, Wicket, and Echo generally can be Aside from JSF, the open source Tapestry, another popular Java Web development framework, provides a component-centric development experience Tapestry allows Web developers to work in a familiar HTML environment where additional attributes (for example, jwcid) are added to the familiar HTML tags such as <input> to allow a set of Java-based components to render different types of sophisticated user interface components Tapestry also provides a small JSP tag library for integration into JSP applications
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