4: Working with Text in Java

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4: Working with Text
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Figure 4-9 Six levels of heading tags exist, with h1 producing large text that is approximately 24 points in size by default, and h6 creating small text sized at 8 or 9 points by default that with a capital A, and, most likely, follow it with a number 1 In like manner, an <h1> should be followed by an <h2>, as opposed to an <h3>
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Using a heading tag automatically adds breaks before and after the heading because these tags are block-level container tags
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You use the heading tags to tell the browser which pieces of text function as headings, and then specify how to style them with CSS So, you could quickly adjust the alignment of your headings with an inline style by using <h3 style="text-align: right;"> Likewise, you could use h3 as a selector in an internal style sheet (placed in between the opening and closing head tags on your page) to specify the formatting options of all level-3 headings on the page
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<style type="text/css"> h3 {text-align: right;} </style>
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Add Logical Emphasis to Sections of Text
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HTML allows for different types of formatting tags to add emphasis Most of the tags available can be classified under one of two styles:
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You might consider logical styles to be similar to a person s personality traits, whereas physical styles more closely resemble a person s physical appearance
Logical Styles
Logical styles define how the affected text is to be used on the page, not how it will be displayed This means the browser ultimately decides how to display the text (see Table 4-3) For example, if you were writing the HTML for the first sentence in this paragraph, you could use the dfn tag to tell the browser the phrase logical styles should be highlighted as a defined term
<dfn>Logical styles</dfn> define how the affected text will be used on the page
NOTE
The h (heading) tag is also a type of logical style
<abbr> <acronym> <cite> <code> <dfn> <em> <kbd> <samp> <strong> <var>
Description
Indicates an abbreviation Indicates an acronym
Typical Graphical Browser Display
Not displayed in graphical browsers (each letter is spoken in audio browsers) Not displayed in graphical browsers (each letter is spoken in audio browsers)
Marks a reference to another source or a short Italic quotation Displays a code example Highlights a definition or defined term Provides general emphasis Identifies text a user will enter (kbd is short for keyboard) Describes sample text or code, typically output from a program Provides a stronger general emphasis than with <em> Suggests a word or phrase that is variable and should be replaced with a specific value Monospace font (such as Courier) Italic Italic Monospace font (such as Courier) Monospace font (such as Courier) Bold Italic
Table 4-3
Logical Styles in HTML
4: Working with Text
In the previous example, the dfn tag would tell the browser to differentiate between the phrase logical styles and the rest of the sentence Exactly how it does so depends on the different browsers, but most browsers display it as italicized text All logical styles must be opened and closed when they are used in an HTML document Figure 4-10 shows how these tags are typically displayed
Physical Styles
Contrary to logical styles, physical styles define how to display the affected text For the most part, these styles display the same, regardless of the browser type Because they are more reliable with regard to browser display, physical styles are more frequently used than logical styles As shown in Table 4-4, all physical styles need to be opened and closed when used in HTML documents A visual representation of these styles is available in Figure 4-11
Figure 4-10
Here s how a Mozilla browser (in this case, Firefox) displays logical styles
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<b> <big> <i> <tt> <small> <sub> <sup>
Description
Bold Increases the font size by 1 each time it is used (maximum size is 7, default size is 3) Italic typewriter font Decreases the font size by 1 each time it is used (minimum size is 1, default size is 3)
script script
super
Table 4-4
Physical Styles in HTML
Figure 4-11
This screen shows how physical styles are typically rendered
4: Working with Text
Emphasis with Style Sheets
There are style sheet properties available for each of the HTML physical and logical styles CSS also enables you to add emphasis in many ways not possible with HTML For example, while HTML only permits you to add underlines to text, CSS includes properties capable of creating overlines That and other commonly used properties are listed in Table 4-5
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