J2ME Architecture and Development Environment in Java

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J2ME: The Complete Reference
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sing J2ME you can develop practically any application that you can imagine for a small computing device The only limitations are those posed by available resources on the small computing device and your skills as a J2ME programmer A small computing device is constrained by its resources, as you learned previously in this book These restrictions are inflexible and require you to design your J2ME application to work within these limitations Fortunately, J2ME technology provides tools to build an industrial-strength Java application designed to run on a small computing device Writing a J2ME application is not unlike writing any Java application You use the same basic programming constructs as used in a J2SE application However, some routines commonly used in a J2SE application must be modified or excluded from a J2ME application In this chapter, you ll learn more about the J2ME architecture and how constraints of the architecture restrict the use of routines that you probably employ in your J2SE applications Furthermore, you ll be introduced to the J2ME development environment and learn techniques for building your first J2ME application
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The modular design of the J2ME architecture enables an application to be scaled based on constraints of a small computing device J2ME architecture doesn t replace the operating system of a small computing device Instead, J2ME architecture consists of layers located above the native operating system, collectively referred to as the Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) The CLDC, which is installed on top of the operating system, forms the run-time environment for small computing devices The J2ME architecture comprises three software layers (Figure 3-1) The first layer is the configuration layer that includes the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which directly interacts with the native operating system The configuration layer also handles interactions between the profile and the JVM The second layer is the profile layer, which consists of the minimum set of application programming interfaces (APIs) for the small computing device The third layer is the Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) The MIDP layer contains Java APIs for user network connections, persistence storage, and the user interface It also has access to CLDC libraries and MIDP libraries
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A small computing device has two components supplied by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) These are classes and applications OEM classes are used by the MIDP to access device-specific features such as sending and receiving messages and accessing device-specific persistent data OEM applications are programs provided by the OEM, such as an address book OEM applications can be accessed by the MIDP A word of caution: accessing OEM classes and OEM applications from the MIDP restricts the portability of a J2ME application since not all small computing device manufacturers use the same OEM classes or OEM applications
J2ME BASICS
Small Computing Device Requirements
There are minimum resource requirements for a small computing device to run a J2ME application First the device must have a minimum of 96 54 pixel display that can handle bitmapped graphics and have a way for users to input information, such as a keypad, keyboard, or touch screen At least 128 kilobytes (KB) of nonvolatile memory is necessary to run Mobile Information Device (MID), and 8KB of nonvolatile memory is needed for storage of persistent application data To run JVM, 32KB of volatile memory must be available The device must also provide two-way network connectivity Besides minimal hardware requirements, there are also minimal requirements for the native operating system The native operating system must implement exception handling, process interrupts, be able to run the JVM, and provide schedule capabilities Furthermore, all user input to the operating system must be forwarded to the JVM, otherwise the device cannot run a J2ME application Although the native operating system doesn t need to implement a file system to run a J2ME application, it must be able to write and read persistent data (data retained when the device is powered down) to nonvolatile memory
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