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THE MECHANICS OF SMB
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To fully understand the Linux/Samba/Windows relationship, you need to understand the relationships of the operating systems to their files, printers, users, and networks To better see how these relationships compare, let s examine some of the fundamental issues of working with both Linux-based systems and Windows in the same environment
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The Linux/UNIX login/password mechanism is radically different from the Windows PDC (Primary Domain Controller) model and the Windows Active Directory model Thus, it s important for the system administrator to maintain consistency in the logins and passwords across both platforms Users may need to work in heterogeneous environments and may need access to the different platforms for various reasons It is thus useful to make working in such environments as seamless as possible without having to worry about users needing to reauthenticate separately on the different platforms or worry about cached passwords that don t match between servers, etc
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Relative to Samba, there are several options for handling username and password issues in heterogeneous environments Some of these are The Linux Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) Allows you to authenticate users against a PDC This means you still have two user lists one local and one on the PDC but your users need only keep track of their passwords on the Windows system Samba as a PDC Allows you to keep all your logins and passwords on the Linux system, while all your Windows boxes authenticate with Samba When Samba is used with a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) back-end for this, you will have a scalable and extensible solution Roll your own solution using Perl Allows you to use your own custom script For sites with a well-established system for maintaining logins and passwords, it isn t unreasonable to come up with a custom script This can be done using WinPerl and Perl modules that allow changes to the Security Access Manager (SAM) to update the PDC s password list A Perl script on the Linux side can communicate with the WinPerl script to keep accounts synchronized
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In the worst-case situation, you can always maintain the username and password databases of the different platforms by hand (which some early system admins did indeed have to do!), but this method is error-prone and not much fun to manage
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Starting with Windows NT 4/Service Pack 3, Windows 98, and Windows 95 OSR2, Windows uses encrypted passwords when communicating with the PDC and any server requiring authentication (including Linux and Samba) The encryption algorithm used by Windows is different from UNIX s, however, and, therefore, is not compatible Here are your choices for handling this conflict: Edit the Registry on Windows clients to disable the use of encrypted passwords The Registry entries that need to be changed are listed in the docs directory in the Samba package As of version 3 of Samba, this option is no longer necessary Configure Samba to use Windows-style encrypted passwords
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The first solution has the benefit of not pushing you to a more complex password scheme On the other hand, you may have to apply the Registry fix on all your clients The second option, of course, has the opposite effect: For a little more complexity on the server side, you don t have to modify any of your clients
Samba Daemons
The Samba code is actually composed of several components and daemons We will examine three of the main daemons here, namely, smbd, nmbd, and winbindd The smbd daemon handles the actual sharing of file systems and printer services for clients It is also responsible for user authentication and resource-locking issues It
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starts by binding to port 139 or port 445 and then listens for requests Every time a client authenticates itself, smbd makes a copy of itself; the original goes back to listening to its primary port for new requests, and the copy handles the connection for the client This new copy also changes its effective user ID from root to the authenticated user (For example, if the user yyang authenticated against smbd, the new copy would run with the permissions of yyang, not the permissions of root) The copy stays in memory as long as there is a connection from the client The nmbd daemon is responsible for handling NetBIOS name service requests nmbd can also be used as a drop-in replacement for a Windows Internet Name Server (WINS) It begins by binding itself to port 137; unlike smbd, however, nmbd does not create a new instance of itself to handle every query In addition to name service requests, nmbd handles requests from master browsers, domain browsers, and WINS servers and as such, it participates in the browsing protocols that make up the popular Windows Network Neighborhood of systems The services provided by the smbd and nmbd daemons complement each other Finally, the service provided by winbindd can be used to query native Windows servers for user and group information, which can then be used on purely Linux/UNIX platforms It does this by using Microsoft Remote Procedure Call (RPC) calls, PAM, and the name service switch (NSS) capabilities found in modern C libraries Its use can be extended through the use of a PAM module (pam_winbind) to provide authentication services This service is controlled separately from the main smb service and can run independently NOTE With the release of Windows 2000, Microsoft moved to a pure Domain Name System (DNS) naming convention as part of its support for Active Directory in an attempt to make name services more consistent between the Network Neighborhood and the hostnames that are published in DNS In theory, you shouldn t need nmbd anymore, but the reality is that you will, especially if you intend to allow non Windows 2000 hosts on your network to access your Samba shares
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