<!ELEMENT BODY O O (%block;) -(BODY) +(INS|DEL)>
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Why are insertions and deletions used in this declaration The content inclusion says that <ins> and <del> tags can occur anywhere in the content enclosed by <body> and </body> tags While the content exclusion says that a body element cannot contain another body element, in this case it s necessary because of the curious %block declaration used in the model group The leading % character identifies this as a parameter entity, essentially a macro symbol that refers to a longer character string declared elsewhere in the DTD Parameter entities, which commonly occur in DTDs, are discussed shortly (see the section Parameter Entities ) The %block entity reference is a shorthand way of referring to all block element types that happen to include <body> It is easier to exclude <body> from the list of block elements than to define a special-purpose declaration Interestingly, XML eliminates the use of content inclusion and exclusion from the XHTML DTD, and thus it is both more verbose and in some ways simpler to read
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Once an element s syntax has been defined, we have to address its attributes All attribute declarations begin with the keyword ATTLIST, followed by the element name, attribute name, attribute type, and default data information, as you can see in the following:
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<!ATTLIST element-name attribute-name attribute-type default-data>
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The HTML 401 <bdo> tag type illustrates a small attribute declaration:
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<!ATTLIST BDO %coreattrs; lang NAME dir (ltr|rtl) >
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R e a d i n g a D o c u m e n t Ty p e D e f i n i t i o n
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The XML syntax that defines the <bdo> tag under XHTML is similar, though you should notice that many more attributes are now available for this tag:
<!ATTLIST bdo %coreattrs; %events; lang %LanguageCode; #IMPLIED xml:lang %LanguageCode; #IMPLIED dir (ltr|rtl) #REQUIRED >
We note that commonly repeated attributes and values under both HTML and XHTML tend to be minimized with parameter entities like %coreattrs, which will expand to id, class, style, and title attributes
SGML and XML Keywords
The previous SGML example declares the lang attribute as having values of type NAME, an alphabetic string NAME is one of several SGML/XML keywords occurring in HTML and XHTML s declarations of an attribute s type: CDATA Unparsed character data ID A document-wide unique identifier IDREF A reference to a document-wide identifier NAME An alphabetic character string plus a hyphen and a period NMTOKEN An alphanumeric character string plus a hyphen and a period NUMBER A character string containing decimal numbers Notice that in the previous DTD fragment example for <bdo> that the dir attribute did not declare its type using a keyword Instead, the type is specified using an enumerated list containing two possible values, ltr and rtl In the previous example for either SGML or XML, the dir attribute s default behavior is specified with a keyword like one of these: #REQUIRED A value must be supplied for the attribute #IMPLIED The attribute is optional #FIXED The attribute has a fixed value that is declared in quotes using an additional parameter Because the attribute/value pair is assumed to be constant, it does not need to be used in the document instance A default value may also be specified using a quoted string; for example, the enctype attribute on a form element has the MIME type shown in the string that follows by default:
enctype %ContentType; "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
An entity is essentially a macro that allows a short name to be associated with replacement text Parameter entities define replacement text used in DTD declarations Syntactically, a parameter entity is distinguished by using the percent (%) symbol Its general form is shown here:
<!ENTITY % name "replacement text">
It is used in DTDs as follows:
Parameter entities are a convenient way to define commonly occurring pieces of a DTD so that changes only need to be made in one place We see in XHTML a parameter entity to define the core attributes common to most elements
<!ENTITY % coreattrs "id ID class CDATA style %StyleSheet; title %Text; > #IMPLIED #IMPLIED #IMPLIED #IMPLIED"
Notice that entity %coreattrs further references entities (%StyleSheet; and %Text;) to define values for the style and title attributes Once defined, the core attributes could be added to an attribute list declaration for an element as follows: