vb.net 2d barcode free VLE: Qualitative Behavior in Software

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103 VLE: Qualitative Behavior
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Saturated liquid (bubble Ilne) Saturated vapor (dew line)
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l~quid - - - Saturated vapor (bubble Ilne) Saturated (dew I~ne)
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Figure 102 (a) Pxy diagram for three temperatures (b) Txy diagram for three pressures
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planes present a diagram such as that shown by Fig 103 This is the P-T diagram; lines U C 1 and KC2 are vapor-pressure curves for the pure species, identified by the same letters as in Fig 101 Each interior loop represents the P-T behavior of saturated liquid and of saturated vapor for a mixture of $xed composition; the different loops are for different compositions Clearly, the P-T relation for saturated liquid is different from that for saturated vapor of the same composition This is in contrast with the behavior of a pure species, for which the bubble and dew lines coincide At points A and B in Fig 103 saturated-liquid and saturated-vapor lines intersect At such points a saturated liquid of one composition and a saturated vapor of another composition have the same T and P,and the two phases are therefore in equilibrium The tie lines connecting the coinciding points at A and at B are perpendicular to the P-T plane, as illustrated by the tie line VL in Fig 101 The critical point of a binary mixture occurs where the nose of a loop in Fig 103 is tangent to the envelope curve Put another way, the envelope curve is the critical locus One can verify this by considering two closely adjacent loops and noting what happens to the point of intersection as their separation becomes infinitesimal Figure 103 illustrates that the location of the critical point on the nose of the loop varies with composition For a pure species the critical point is the highest temperature and highest pressure at which vapor and liquid phases can coexist, but for a mixture it is in general neither Therefore under certain conditions a condensation process occurs as the result of a reduction in pressure Consider the enlarged nose section of a single P-T loop shown in FiglO4 The critical point is at C The points of maximum pressure and maximum temperature are identified as M p and M T The interior dashed curves indicate the fraction of the overall system that is liquid
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CHAPTER 10 Vapor/Liquid Equilibrium: Introduction
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Saturated l ~ q u ~ d (bubble Ilne) Saturated vapor (dew h e )
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Figure 103 PT diagram for several compositions
Figure 104 Portion of a P T diagram in the critical region
in a two-phase mixture of liquid and vapor To the left of the critical point C a reduction in pressure along a line such as B D is accompanied by vaporization of liquid from bubblepoint to dewpoint, as would be expected However, if the original condition corresponds to point F , a state of saturated vapor, liquefaction occurs upon reduction of the pressure and reaches a maximum at point G, after which vaporization takes place until the dewpoint is reached at point H This phenomenon is called retrograde condensation It can be important in the operation of deep natural-gas wells where the pressure and temperature in the underground formation are at conditions represented by point F If the pressure at the wellhead is that of point G, considerable liquefaction of the product stream is accomplished along with partial separation of the heavier species of the mixture Within the underground formation itself, the pressure tends to drop as the gas supply is depleted If not prevented, this leads to the formation of a liquid phase and a consequent reduction in the production of the well Repressuring is therefore a common practice; ie, lean gas (gas from which the heavier species have been removed) is returned to the underground reservoir to maintain an elevated pressure A P-T diagram for the ethane(l)/n-heptane(2) system is shown in Fig 105, and a yl-xl diagram for several pressures for the same system appears in Fig 106 According to convention, one plots as yl and xl the mole fractions of the more volatile species in the mixture The maximum and minimum concentrations of the more volatile species obtainable by distillation at a given pressure are indicated by the points of intersection of the appropriate y -XI curve with the diagonal, for at these points the vapor and liquid have the same composition They are in fact mixture critical points, unless yl = xl = 0 or yl = xl = 1 Point A in Fig 106 represents the composition of the vapor and liquid phases at the maximum pressure at which the phases can coexist in the ethaneln-heptane system The composition is about 77 mol-% ethane and the pressure is about 871 bar The corresponding point on Fig 105 is labeled M A complete set of consistent phase diagrams for this system has been prepared by ~arr-David'
'F H Ban-David, AIChE J, vol 2, p 426, 1956
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