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Reflection is the ability of a program to analyze itself The javalangreflect package provides the ability to obtain information about the fields, constructors, methods, and modifiers of a class You need this information to build software tools that enable you to work with Java Beans components The tools use reflection to determine dynamically the characteristics of a component This topic is considered in 25 In addition, the javalangreflect package includes a class that enables you to create and access arrays dynamically
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15: javautil Part 1: The Collections Framework
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The javautil package contains some of the most exciting enhancements added by Java 2: collections A collection is a group of objects The addition of collections caused fundamental alterations in the structure and architecture of many elements in javautil It also expanded the domain of tasks to which the package can be applied Collections are a state-of-the-art technology that merits close attention by all Java programmers In addition to collections, javautil contains a wide assortment of classes and interfaces that support a broad range of functionality These classes and interfaces are used throughout the core Java packages and, of course, are also available for use in programs that you write Their applications include generating pseudorandom numbers, manipulating date and time, observing events, manipulating sets of bits, and tokenizing strings Because of its many features, javautil is one of Java's most widely used packages The javautil classes are listed here The ones added by Java 2 are so labeled AbstractCollection (Java 2) AbstractList (Java 2) AbstractMap (Java 2) EventObject PropertyResourceBundle
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GregorianCalendar HashMap (Java 2) HashSet (Java 2) Hashtable LinkedList (Java 2) ListResourceBundle Locale Observable Properties
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AbstractSequentialList (Java 2) AbstractSet (Java 2) ArrayList (Java 2)
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Arrays (Java 2) BitSet Calendar Collections (Java 2)
TimeZone TreeMap (Java 2) TreeSet (Java 2) Vector
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PropertyPermission (Java 2)
WeakHashMap (Java 2)
Dictionary javautil defines the following interfaces Notice that most were added by Java 2 Collection (Java 2) Comparator (Java 2) List (Java 2) ListIterator (Java 2) Map (Java 2) MapEntry (Java 2) Observer Set (Java 2)
Enumeration EventListener
SortedMap (Java 2) SortedSet (Java 2)
Iterator (Java 2) The ResourceBundle, ListResourceBundle, and PropertyResourceBundle classes aid in the internationalization of large programs with many locale-specific resources These classes are not examined here PropertyPermission, which allows you to grant a read/write permission to a system property, is also beyond the scope of this book EventObject and EventListener are described in 20 The remaining classes and interfaces are examined in detail Because javautil is quite large, its description is broken into two chapters This chapter examines those members of javautil that relate to collections of objects 16 discusses the other classes and interfaces
Collections Overview
The Java collections framework standardizes the way in which groups of objects are handled by your programs In the past, Java provided ad hoc classes such as Dictionary, Vector, Stack, and Properties to store and manipulate groups of objects Although these classes were quite useful, they lacked a central, unifying theme Thus, the way that you used Vector was different from the way that you used Properties, for example Also, the previous, ad hoc approach was not designed to be easily extensible or adaptable Collections are an answer to these (and other) problems The collections framework was designed to meet several goals First, the framework had to be high-performance The implementations for the fundamental collections (dynamic arrays, linked lists, trees, and hash tables) are highly efficient You seldom, if ever, need to code one of these "data engines" manually Second, the framework had to allow different types of collections to work in a similar manner and with a high degree of interoperability Third, extending and/or adapting a collection had to be easy Toward this end, the entire collections framework is designed around a set of standard interfaces Several standard implementations (such as LinkedList, HashSet, and TreeSet) of these interfaces are provided that you may use as-is You may also implement your own collection, if you choose Various special-purpose implementations are created for your convenience, and some partial implementations are provided that make creating your own collection class easier Finally, mechanisms were added that allow the integration of standard arrays into the collections framework Algorithms are another important part of the collection mechanism Algorithms operate on collections and are defined as static methods within the Collections class Thus, they are available for all collections Each collection class need not implement its own versions The algorithms provide a standard means of manipulating collections
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Another item created by the collections framework is the Iterator interface An iterator gives you a general-purpose, standardized way of accessing the elements within a collection, one at a time Thus, an iterator provides a means of enumerating the contents of a collection Because each collection implements Iterator, the elements of any collection class can be accessed through the methods defined by Iterator Thus, with only small changes, the code that cycles through a set can also be used to cycle through a list, for example In addition to collections, the framework defines several map interfaces and classes Maps store key/value pairs Although maps are not "collections" in the proper use of the term, they are fully integrated with collections In the language of the collections framework, you can obtain a collection-view of a map Such a view contains the elements from the map stored in a collection Thus, you can process the contents of a map as a collection, if you choose The collection mechanism was retrofitted to some of the original classes defined by javautil so that they too could be integrated into the new system It is important to understand that although the addition of collections has altered the architecture of many of the original utility classes, it has not caused the deprecation of any Collections simply provide a better way of doing several things One last thing: If you are familiar with C++, then you will find it helpful to know that the Java collections technology is similar in spirit to the Standard Template Library (STL) defined by C++ What C++ calls a container, Java calls a collection
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