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However, what if you want to create a method that displays the X, Y, and Z coordinates of a ThreeD or FourD object The trouble is that not all Coords objects will have three coordinates, because a Coords<TwoD> object will only have X and Y Therefore, how do you write a method that displays the X, Y, and Z coordinates for Coords<ThreeD> and Coords<FourD> objects, while preventing that method from being used with Coords<TwoD> objects The answer is the bounded wildcard argument A bounded wildcard specifies either an upper bound or a lower bound for the type argument This enables you to restrict the types of objects upon which a method will operate The most common bounded wildcard is the upper bound, which is created using an extends clause in much the same way it is used to create a bounded type Using a bounded wildcard, it is easy to create a method that displays the X, Y, and Z coordinates of a Coords object, if that object actually has those three coordinates For example, the following showXYZ( ) method shows the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the elements stored in a Coords object, if those elements are actually of type ThreeD (or are derived from ThreeD):
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static void showXYZ(Coords< extends ThreeD> c) { Systemoutprintln("X Y Z Coordinates:"); for(int i=0; i < ccoordslength; i++) Systemoutprintln(ccoords[i]x + " " + ccoords[i]y + " " + ccoords[i]z); Systemoutprintln(); }
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Notice that an extends clause has been added to the wildcard in the declaration of parameter c It states that the can match any type as long as it is ThreeD, or a class derived from ThreeD Thus, the extends clause establishes an upper bound that the can match Because of this bound, showXYZ( ) can be called with references to objects of type Coords<ThreeD> or Coords<FourD>, but not with a reference of type Coords<TwoD> Attempting to call showXZY( ) with a Coords<TwoD> reference results in a compile-time error, thus ensuring type safety Here is an entire program that demonstrates the actions of a bounded wildcard argument:
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// Bounded Wildcard arguments // Two-dimensional coordinates class TwoD { int x, y; TwoD(int a, int b) { x = a; y = b; } } // Three-dimensional coordinates class ThreeD extends TwoD { int z; ThreeD(int a, int b, int c) {
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super(a, b); z = c; } } // Four-dimensional coordinates class FourD extends ThreeD { int t; FourD(int a, int b, int c, int d) { super(a, b, c); t = d; } } // This class holds an array of coordinate objects class Coords<T extends TwoD> { T[] coords; Coords(T[] o) { coords = o; } } // Demonstrate a bounded wildcard class BoundedWildcard { static void showXY(Coords< > c) { Systemoutprintln("X Y Coordinates:"); for(int i=0; i < ccoordslength; i++) Systemoutprintln(ccoords[i]x + " " + ccoords[i]y); Systemoutprintln(); } static void showXYZ(Coords< extends ThreeD> c) { Systemoutprintln("X Y Z Coordinates:"); for(int i=0; i < ccoordslength; i++) Systemoutprintln(ccoords[i]x + " " + ccoords[i]y + " " + ccoords[i]z); Systemoutprintln(); } static void showAll(Coords< extends FourD> c) { Systemoutprintln("X Y Z T Coordinates:"); for(int i=0; i < ccoordslength; i++) Systemoutprintln(ccoords[i]x + " " + ccoords[i]y + " " + ccoords[i]z + " " + ccoords[i]t); Systemoutprintln(); } public static void main(String args[]) { TwoD td[] = {
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new new new new };
TwoD(0, 0), TwoD(7, 9), TwoD(18, 4), TwoD(-1, -23)
Coords<TwoD> tdlocs = new Coords<TwoD>(td); Systemoutprintln("Contents of tdlocs"); showXY(tdlocs); // OK, is a TwoD showXYZ(tdlocs); // Error, not a ThreeD showAll(tdlocs); // Error, not a FourD // Now, create some FourD objects FourD fd[] = { new FourD(1, 2, 3, 4), new FourD(6, 8, 14, 8), new FourD(22, 9, 4, 9), new FourD(3, -2, -23, 17) }; Coords<FourD> fdlocs = new Coords<FourD>(fd); Systemoutprintln("Contents of fdlocs"); // These are all OK showXY(fdlocs); showXYZ(fdlocs); showAll(fdlocs); } }
// //
The output from the program is shown here: Contents of tdlocs X Y Coordinates: 0 0 7 9 18 4 -1 -23 Contents of fdlocs X Y Coordinates: 1 2 6 8 22 9 3 -2 X Y Z Coordinates: 1 2 3 6 8 14 22 9 4 3 -2 -23
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