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// Binary search for -9 Systemoutprint("The value -9 is at location "); int index = ArraysbinarySearch(array, -9); Systemoutprintln(index); } static void display(int array[]) { for(int i: array) Systemoutprint(i + " "); Systemoutprintln(); } }
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The following is the output from this program: Original contents: 0 -3 -6 -9 -12 -15 -18 -21 -24 -27 Sorted: -27 -24 -21 -18 -15 -12 -9 -6 -3 0 After fill(): -27 -24 -1 -1 -1 -1 -9 -6 -3 0 After sorting again: -27 -24 -9 -6 -3 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 The value -9 is at location 2
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As mentioned at the start of this chapter, the entire Collections Framework was refitted for generics when JDK 5 was released Furthermore, the Collections Framework is arguably the single most important use of generics in the Java API The reason for this is that generics add type safety to the Collections Framework Before moving on, it is worth taking some time to examine in detail the significance of this improvement Let s begin with an example that uses pre-generics code The following program stores a list of strings in an ArrayList and then displays the contents of the list:
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// Pre-generics example that uses a collection import javautil*; class OldStyle { public static void main(String args[]) { ArrayList list = new ArrayList(); // These lines store strings, but any type of object // can be stored In old-style code, there is no // convenient way to restrict the type of objects stored // in a collection listadd("one"); listadd("two"); listadd("three"); listadd("four"); Iterator itr = listiterator(); while(itrhasNext()) {
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javautil Part 1: The Collections Framework
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// To retrieve an element, an explicit type cast is needed // because the collection stores only Object String str = (String) itrnext(); // explicit cast needed here Systemoutprintln(str + " is " + strlength() + " chars long"); } } }
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Prior to generics, all collections stored references of type Object This allowed any type of reference to be stored in the collection The preceding program uses this feature to store references to objects of type String in list, but any type of reference could have been stored Unfortunately, the fact that a pre-generics collection stored Object references could easily lead to errors First, it required that you, rather than the compiler, ensure that only objects of the proper type be stored in a specific collection For example, in the preceding example, list is clearly intended to store Strings, but there is nothing that actually prevents another type of reference from being added to the collection For example, the compiler will find nothing wrong with this line of code:
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listadd(new Integer(100));
Because list stores Object references, it can store a reference to Integer as well as it can store a reference to String However, if you intended list to hold only strings, then the preceding statement would corrupt the collection Again, the compiler had no way to know that the preceding statement is invalid The second problem with pre-generics collections is that when you retrieve a reference from the collection, you must manually cast that reference into the proper type This is why the preceding program casts the reference returned by next( ) into String Prior to generics, collections simply stored Object references Thus, the cast was necessary when retrieving objects from a collection Aside from the inconvenience of always having to cast a retrieved reference into its proper type, this lack of type safety often led to a rather serious, but surprisingly easy-to-create, error Because Object can be cast into any type of object, it was possible to cast a reference obtained from a collection into the wrong type For example, if the following statement were added to the preceding example, it would still compile without error, but generate a run-time exception when executed:
Integer i = (Integer) itrnext();
Recall that the preceding example stored only references to instances of type String in list Thus, when this statement attempts to cast a String into an Integer, an invalid cast exception results! Because this happens at run time, this is a very serious error The addition of generics fundamentally improves the usability and safety of collections because it
Ensures that only references to objects of the proper type can actually be stored in a collection Thus, a collection will always contain references of a known type Eliminates the need to cast a reference retrieved from a collection Instead, a reference retrieved from a collection is automatically cast into the proper type This prevents run-time errors due to invalid casts and avoids an entire category of errors
Part II:
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