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javautil Part 1: The Collections Framework
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// ignore missing file } /* If phonebook file already exists, load existing telephone numbers */ try { if(fin != null) { htload(fin); finclose(); } } catch(IOException e) { Systemoutprintln("Error reading file"); } // Let user enter new names and numbers do { Systemoutprintln("Enter new name" + " ('quit' to stop): "); name = brreadLine(); if(nameequals("quit")) continue; Systemoutprintln("Enter number: "); number = brreadLine(); htput(name, number); changed = true; } while(!nameequals("quit")); // If phone book data has changed, save it if(changed) { FileOutputStream fout = new FileOutputStream("phonebookdat"); htstore(fout, "Telephone Book"); foutclose(); } // Look up numbers given a name do { Systemoutprintln("Enter name to find" + " ('quit' to quit): "); name = brreadLine(); if(nameequals("quit")) continue; number = (String) htget(name); Systemoutprintln(number); } while(!nameequals("quit")); } }
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Parting Thoughts on Collections
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The Collections Framework gives you, the programmer, a powerful set of well-engineered solutions to some of programming s most common tasks Now that the Collections Framework is generic, it can be used with complete type safety, which further contributes to its value
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Part II:
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The Java Library
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Consider using a collection the next time that you need to store and retrieve information Remember, collections need not be reserved for only the large jobs, such as corporate databases, mailing lists, or inventory systems They are also effective when applied to smaller jobs For example, a TreeMap would make an excellent collection to hold the directory structure of a set of files A TreeSet could be quite useful for storing project-management information Frankly, the types of problems that will benefit from a collections-based solution are limited only by your imagination
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javautil Part 2: More Utility Classes
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his chapter continues our discussion of javautil by examining those classes and interfaces that are not part of the Collections Framework These include classes that tokenize strings, work with dates, compute random numbers, bundle resources, and observe events Also covered are the Formatter and Scanner classes which make it easy to write and read formatted data Finally, the subpackages of javautil are briefly mentioned at the end of this chapter
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StringTokenizer
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The processing of text often consists of parsing a formatted input string Parsing is the division of text into a set of discrete parts, or tokens, which in a certain sequence can convey a semantic meaning The StringTokenizer class provides the first step in this parsing process, often called the lexer (lexical analyzer) or scanner StringTokenizer implements the Enumeration interface Therefore, given an input string, you can enumerate the individual tokens contained in it using StringTokenizer To use StringTokenizer, you specify an input string and a string that contains delimiters Delimiters are characters that separate tokens Each character in the delimiters string is considered a valid delimiter for example, ,;: sets the delimiters to a comma, semicolon, and colon The default set of delimiters consists of the whitespace characters: space, tab, newline, and carriage return The StringTokenizer constructors are shown here: StringTokenizer(String str) StringTokenizer(String str, String delimiters) StringTokenizer(String str, String delimiters, boolean delimAsToken) In all versions, str is the string that will be tokenized In the first version, the default delimiters are used In the second and third versions, delimiters is a string that specifies the delimiters In the third version, if delimAsToken is true, then the delimiters are also returned as tokens when the string is parsed Otherwise, the delimiters are not returned Delimiters are not returned as tokens by the first two forms
Part II:
The Java Library
Once you have created a StringTokenizer object, the nextToken( ) method is used to extract consecutive tokens The hasMoreTokens( ) method returns true while there are more tokens to be extracted Since StringTokenizer implements Enumeration, the hasMoreElements( ) and nextElement( ) methods are also implemented, and they act the same as hasMoreTokens( ) and nextToken( ), respectively The StringTokenizer methods are shown in Table 18-1 Here is an example that creates a StringTokenizer to parse key=value pairs Consecutive sets of key=value pairs are separated by a semicolon
// Demonstrate StringTokenizer import javautilStringTokenizer; class STDemo { static String in = "title=Java: The Complete Reference;" + "author=Schildt;" + "publisher=Osborne/McGraw-Hill;" + "copyright=2007"; public static void main(String args[]) { StringTokenizer st = new StringTokenizer(in, "=;"); while(sthasMoreTokens()) { String key = stnextToken(); String val = stnextToken(); Systemoutprintln(key + "\t" + val); } } }
The output from this program is shown here: title Java: The Complete Reference author Schildt publisher Osborne/McGraw-Hill copyright 2007
Method int countTokens( ) Description Using the current set of delimiters, the method determines the number of tokens left to be parsed and returns the result Returns true if one or more tokens remain in the string and returns false if there are none Returns true if one or more tokens remain in the string and returns false if there are none Returns the next token as an Object Returns the next token as a String Returns the next token as a String and sets the delimiters string to that specified by delimiters
boolean hasMoreElements( ) boolean hasMoreTokens( ) Object nextElement( ) String nextToken( ) String nextToken(String delimiters) TABLE 18-1
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