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The Java Library
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class MyMouseAdapter extends MouseAdapter { SampleFonts sampleFonts; public MyMouseAdapter(SampleFonts sampleFonts) { thissampleFonts = sampleFonts; } public void mousePressed(MouseEvent me) { // Switch fonts with each mouse click sampleFontsnext++; switch(sampleFontsnext) { case 0: sampleFontsf = new Font("Dialog", FontPLAIN, 12); sampleFontsmsg = "Dialog"; break; case 1: sampleFontsf = new Font("DialogInput", FontPLAIN, 12); sampleFontsmsg = "DialogInput"; break; case 2: sampleFontsf = new Font("SansSerif", FontPLAIN, 12); sampleFontsmsg = "SansSerif"; break; case 3: sampleFontsf = new Font("Serif", FontPLAIN, 12); sampleFontsmsg = "Serif"; break; case 4: sampleFontsf = new Font("Monospaced", FontPLAIN, 12); sampleFontsmsg = "Monospaced"; break; } if(sampleFontsnext == 4) sampleFontsnext = -1; sampleFontssetFont(sampleFontsf); sampleFontsrepaint(); } }
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Suppose you want to obtain information about the currently selected font To do this, you must first get the current font by calling getFont( ) This method is defined by the Graphics class, as shown here:
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I n t r o d u c i n g t h e A W T: Wo r k i n g w i t h W i n d o w s , G r a p h i c s , a n d Te x t
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Font getFont( ) Once you have obtained the currently selected font, you can retrieve information about it using various methods defined by Font For example, this applet displays the name, family, size, and style of the currently selected font:
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// Display font info import javaapplet*; import javaawt*; /* <applet code="FontInfo" width=350 height=60> </applet> */ public class FontInfo extends Applet { public void paint(Graphics g) { Font f = ggetFont(); String fontName = fgetName(); String fontFamily = fgetFamily(); int fontSize = fgetSize(); int fontStyle = fgetStyle(); String msg = "Family: " + fontName; msg += ", Font: " + fontFamily; msg += ", Size: " + fontSize + ", Style: "; if((fontStyle & FontBOLD) == FontBOLD) msg += "Bold "; if((fontStyle & FontITALIC) == FontITALIC) msg += "Italic "; if((fontStyle & FontPLAIN) == FontPLAIN) msg += "Plain "; gdrawString(msg, 4, 16); } }
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As just explained, Java supports a number of fonts For most fonts, characters are not all the same dimension most fonts are proportional Also, the height of each character, the length of descenders (the hanging parts of letters, such as y), and the amount of space between horizontal lines vary from font to font Further, the point size of a font can be changed That these (and other) attributes are variable would not be of too much consequence except that Java demands that you, the programmer, manually manage virtually all text output Given that the size of each font may differ and that fonts may be changed while your program is executing, there must be some way to determine the dimensions and various other attributes of the currently selected font For example, to write one line of text after another implies that you have some way of knowing how tall the font is and how many pixels are needed between lines To fill this need, the AWT includes the FontMetrics class,
Part II:
The Java Library
which encapsulates various information about a font Let s begin by defining the common terminology used when describing fonts:
Height Baseline Ascent Descent Leading The top-to-bottom size of a line of text The line that the bottoms of characters are aligned to (not counting descent) The distance from the baseline to the top of a character The distance from the baseline to the bottom of a character The distance between the bottom of one line of text and the top of the next
As you know, we have used the drawString( ) method in many of the previous examples It paints a string in the current font and color, beginning at a specified location However, this location is at the left edge of the baseline of the characters, not at the upper-left corner as is usual with other drawing methods It is a common error to draw a string at the same coordinate that you would draw a box For example, if you were to draw a rectangle at coordinate 0,0, you would see a full rectangle If you were to draw the string Typesetting at 0,0, you would only see the tails (or descenders) of the y, p, and g As you will see, by using font metrics, you can determine the proper placement of each string that you display FontMetrics defines several methods that help you manage text output Several commonly used ones are listed in Table 23-3 These methods help you properly display text in a window Let s look at some examples
Method int bytesWidth(byte b[ ], int start, int numBytes) int charWidth(char c[ ], int start, int numChars) int charWidth(char c) int charWidth(int c) int getAscent( ) int getDescent( ) Font getFont( ) int getHeight( ) int getLeading( ) int getMaxAdvance( ) int getMaxAscent( ) int getMaxDescent( ) int[ ] getWidths( ) int stringWidth(String str) String toString( ) TABLE 23-3 Description Returns the width of numBytes characters held in array b, beginning at start Returns the width of numChars characters held in array c, beginning at start Returns the width of c Returns the width of c Returns the ascent of the font Returns the descent of the font Returns the font Returns the height of a line of text This value can be used to output multiple lines of text in a window Returns the space between lines of text Returns the width of the widest character 1 is returned if this value is not available Returns the maximum ascent Returns the maximum descent Returns the widths of the first 256 characters Returns the width of the string specified by str Returns the string equivalent of the invoking object
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