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This is the user ID for the user account We discussed the UID earlier in this chapter In this example, the UID for the ksanders account is 1001 This field references the group ID number of the user s default group In this example, the GID for the ksanders account is 100 As we ll see later in this chapter, this references the users group This field contains the user s full name In this example, it s Kimberly Sanders This field contains the path to the user s home directory In this case, the home directory is /home/ksanders This field specifies the shell that will be used by default For ksanders, this is /bin/bash (the Bourne-Again SHell)
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Home_Directory Default_Shell
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You probably noticed in Figure 7-9 that there are a lot of user accounts listed in the /etc/passwd file on my system Your first instinct may be that I ve created a lot of users on my system Actually, this isn t the case I ve only created two standard users: tux and ksanders All of the other user accounts are system user accounts They aren t used for login Instead, they are used by services running on the system When one of these services needs to do something in the Linux file system, it does so as its associated user account from /etc/passwd For example, suppose I ve logged into the ftp service on my Linux system as an anonymous user and uploaded a file This file needs to be written to the ftp service s
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FIGURE 7-9
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Viewing the /etc/passwd file
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default directory in the file system When it writes, it does so as the ftp user By doing this, we can use permissions (discussed later in the chapter) to control what a given service can or can t do Let s next look at the /etc/shadow file
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The /etc/shadow File With most Linux distributions that use local authentication, your users passwords will be stored in encrypted format in the /etc/shadow file This file is linked to the /etc/passwd file we discussed previously Each of the user accounts listed in /etc/passwd has a corresponding entry in /etc/shadow, as shown in Figure 7-10 As with /etc/passwd, each user account is represented by a single line in the /etc/ shadow file Each record is composed of the following fields, each separated by a colon:
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Username:Password:Last_Modified:Min_Days:Max_Days:Days_Warn:Disabled_Days:Expire
For example, the record for ksanders is as follows:
ksanders:$2a%05$fHzL5vsuk3ilLIuispxqKuCFEPg50ZhF8KshQyIZH7SDERJooEJTC:13481:0:99999:7:-1::
7: Working with Linux Users and Groups
FIGURE 7-10
Viewing the /etc/shadow file
Here s what each of these fields contain:
Username Password
This is the user s login name from /etc/passwd
This is the user s password in encrypted format In the preceding example, the password for ksanders is Sanders1 However, to prevent someone from copying the /etc/shadow file and grabbing your user passwords from it, they are stored in encrypted format You may notice that several of the system user accounts have a simple asterisk in this field (*) This indicates that these accounts aren t allowed to log in to the system For example, if I tried to log in to my system as ftp, I would be denied access even though the ftp user account exists This field displays the number of days since January 1, 1970 that the password was last changed In this example, it s been 13481 days This field displays the minimum number of days required before a password can be changed In this example, it is set to 0 days
Last_Modified Min_Days
Manage Users and Groups
Max_Days
This field displays the maximum number of days before a password must be changed In this example, it is set to 99999 days Effectively, this means a password isn t required
Days_Warn
This field displays the number of days prior to password expiration that the user will be warned of the pending expiration In this case, it s set to 7 days This field displays the number of days to wait after a password has expired to disable the account In this example, it is set to 1 This value disables this functionality This field displays the number of days since January 1, 1970 after which the account will be disabled In this example, it is set to a null value, indicating the account never expires
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