barcode printer vb.net Manage Users and Groups in Software

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Manage Users and Groups
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FIGURE 7-22
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Viewing entries in the /etc/group file
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As with the /etc/passwd and the /etc/shadow files, each line in /etc/group is a single record that represents one group Each record is composed of the following four fields:
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Group:Password:GID:Users
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For example, in Figure 7-22, the record for the video group reads as follows:
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video:x:33:ksanders,tux,jsanders
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Group
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Specifies the name of the group In the example above, the name of the group is video Specifies the group password
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7: Working with Linux Users and Groups
GID
Specifies the group ID (GID) number of the group In this example, the GID of the video group is 33 Lists the members of the group In this case, the ksanders, tux, and jsanders users are members of the video group
Users
Some distributions, such as Fedora, use an additional group file to store group passwords Just as /etc/shadow is used to store encrypted passwords for users defined in /etc/passwd, the /etc/gshadow file is sometimes used to define group passwords for groups defined in /etc/group A sample /etc/gshadow file is shown in Figure 7-23 As with /etc/shadow, each line in /etc/gshadow represents a record for a single group Each record is composed of the following fields:
Group_Name:Password:Group_Admins:Group_Members
With this in mind, let s review how you can manage your groups with commandline tools
Managing Groups from the Command Line
As with users, you can also manage groups with either command-line or graphical tools For example, both YaST and User Manager can be used to create, modify, or delete groups on your Linux system as well as user accounts
FIGURE 7-23
Viewing the /etc/ gshadow file
Manage Users and Groups
However, for the reasons specified earlier, we re going to focus on managing groups from the shell prompt in this chapter We will review the following tools:
Using groupadd Using groupmod Using groupdel
Let s begin by looking at groupadd
Using groupadd As you can probably guess from its name, the groupadd utility is used to add groups to your Linux system The syntax for using groupadd at the shell prompt is relatively simple Just enter groupadd options groupname For example, if I wanted to add a group named dbusers, I would enter groupadd dbusers at the shell prompt When I do, a group is added to /etc/group using default parameters specified in /etc/logindefs When using groupadd, you can override the defaults in /etc/logindefs and customize the way the group is created using the following options:
g p r
Specifies a GID for the new group Specifies a password for the group Specifies that the group being created is a system group
Let s next look at groupmod
Using groupmod You may have noticed that the groupadd command didn t add one key component to the new group: Users! What good is a group if you don t have any users occupying it To modify a group, including adding users to the group membership, you use the groupmod utility The syntax for using groupmod is similar to that used by usermod Enter groupmod options group at the shell prompt You can use the following options with the command:
g p A R
Changes the group s GID number Changes the group s password Adds a user account to the group Removes a user account from the group
In the preceding topic, we added a group named dbusers to the system If we wanted to add ksanders to the group, we would enter groupmod A ksanders dbusers at the shell prompt
7: Working with Linux Users and Groups
SCENARIO & SOLUTION
You want to create a new group on a Linux system for marketing employees This group should be named mkt What command would you enter to do this, assuming you want to use system defaults for creating the group You want to add the user vhammer as a member of the mkt group What command would you use to do this You would enter groupadd mkt
You would enter groupmod A vhammer mkt at the shell prompt
Finally, let s look at deleting groups
Using groupdel If, for some reason, you need to delete an existing group from the system, you can do so using the groupdel command at the shell prompt For example, to delete the dbusers group, you would enter groupdel dbusers Let s practice managing groups in the following exercise
EXERCISE 7-2
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