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Manage Ownership, Permissions, and Quotas
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isn t a member of the owning group In this example, these users are also assigned r rights to the contactsodt file, again, granting them read access Before we progress any farther, you should know that permissions for each entity can also be represented numerically This is done by assigning a value to each permission, as shown in Table 7-2 Using these values, you can represent the permissions assigned to the Owner, Group, or Others with a single number Simply add up the value of each permission For example, suppose Owner is assigned read and write permissions to a file To determine the numeric value of this assignment, simply add the values of read and write together (4+2=6) You will many times see a file or directory s mode represented by three numbers Consider the example shown in Figure 7-29 In this example, the associated file owner has read and write permissions (6), the owning group has the read permission (4), and others also have the read permission (4) Using the ls l command, this mode would be represented as rw r r So what do you do if these permissions aren t correct You use the chmod utility to modify them! Let s discuss how this is done next
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I realize that I m sounding like a broken record, but, just as with most of the other tasks in this chapter, you can modify permissions either graphically or from the command line For example, using the Konqueror file browser in the KDE Desktop environment, you can right-click any file or directory and then select Properties | Permissions The screen in Figure 7-30 is displayed You then can use drop-down lists for Owner, Group, and Others to specify what each entity can do with the file or directory When you select OK, the file or directory s mode is changed to match what you specified However, for your Linux+ exam, you must be able to accomplish this same task using command-line tools The one you use to modify permissions is chmod To use chmod to modify a file s permissions, you must either own the file or you must be logged in as root Any other users will not be allowed to do this There are several different syntaxes that can be used with chmod The first is to enter chmod entity=permissions filename at the shell prompt You substitute u for
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TABLE 7-2
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Numeric Values Assigned to Permissions
7: Working with Linux Users and Groups
FIGURE 7-29
Owner Read + Write (4 + 2 = 6) Group Read 4 Others Read 4
Representing permissions numerically
Owner, g for Group, and o for Others in the entity portion of the command You substitute r, w, and/or x for the permissions portion of the command For example, suppose I wanted to change the mode of contactsodt to rw rw r (giving the
FIGURE 7-30
Setting permissions in Konqueror
Manage Ownership, Permissions, and Quotas
Owner and Group read and write permissions while giving Others only read access) I would enter chmod u=rw,g=rw,o=r contactsodt at the shell prompt (assuming the file resides in the current directory) After doing so, the mode is adjusted with the permissions assigned by chmod, as shown in Figure 7-31 You can also use chmod to toggle a particular permission on or off using the + or signs For example, suppose I want to turn off the write permission I just gave to Group for the contactsodt file I could enter chmod g w contactsodt at the shell prompt When I do, the specified permission is turned off, as shown in Figure 7-32 If I wanted to turn the permission back on, I would enter chmod g+w contacts odt You can substitute u or o to modify permission to the file or directory for Owner and Others as well Finally, you can also use numeric permissions with chmod This is the option I use most often You can modify all three entities at once with only three characters To do this, enter chmod numeric_permission filename Going back to our earlier example, suppose I wanted to grant read and write permissions to Owner and Group, but remove all permissions to Others That would mean Owner and Group s permissions would be represented numerically as 6 Because Others gets no permissions, its permissions would be represented by 0 I could implement this by entering chmod 660 contactsodt at the shell prompt When I do, the appropriate changes are made, as shown in Figure 7-33
FIGURE 7-31
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