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Some distributions store group passwords (if implemented) in /etc/group Other distributions store them in a separate file (in encrypted format) in /etc/gshadow, much in the same manner as user accounts are stored in /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow You create groups in your Linux system using the groupadd command If you don t specify any options with the groupadd command, the group is created using default parameters found in /etc/logindefs To add users to a group, you must use the A option with the groupmod command at the shell prompt You can also remove groups using the groupdel command We then turned to a discussion of ownership, permissions, and quotas We pointed out that users and groups only control who can access the system They don t control what the user can do with files or directories in the file system To do this, we need to implement ownership and permissions We pointed out that, whenever a user creates a file or directory, that user is automatically assigned to be its owner In addition, the group the user belongs to becomes the file or directory s group owner These defaults can be changed; however,
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7: Working with Linux Users and Groups
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you must be logged in as root to change a file or directory s owner or be logged in as its owner to change its group To modify ownership, you use the chown command This command can change both the user and/or the group that owns a file or directory If you only want to change the group, you can also use the chgrp command We then pointed out that ownership alone can t control user access to files and directories To fully control access, we need Linux file system permissions Permissions define what a user can and cannot do with a given file or directory Linux uses the following permissions:
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Linux assigns permissions to the following entities:
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The permissions assigned to Owner, Group, and Others together constitute a file or directory s mode We also emphasized that Linux permissions are additive If a given user is both an owner and member of the owning group, then he or she receives permissions assigned for a file or directory to Owner and Group We then pointed out that permissions can be represented numerically for Owner, Group, and Others using the following values:
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By adding up each permission assigned to a given entity, you can represent all of the permissions assigned with a single number For example, a value of 7 indicates that all permissions have been assigned A value of 5 indicates read and execute permissions have been assigned We then discussed the chmod tool that is used to manage permissions from the shell prompt The chmod utility can use any of the following syntaxes to assign permissions to Owner, Group, and/or Others:
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chmod u=rw,g=rw,o=r file_or_directory chmod u+rw,g+rw,o+r file_or_directory chmod 664 file_or_directory
At this point, we began a discussion of default Linux permissions We pointed out that, by default, Linux automatically assigns new files with rw rw rw permissions and new directories with rwxrwxrwx permissions upon creation However, to increase security, the umask variable is used to automatically remove some permission The default umask value is 022, which removes the write permission from Group and Others when a file or directory is created We pointed out that you can change the value of umask by entering umask value at the shell prompt We also briefly discussed the special permissions that you can assign, including:
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We pointed out that you assign these permissions with chmod by adding an extra digit before the Owner digit in the command using the values shown above We ended the chapter by discussing how to implement disk quotas We pointed out that disk quotas are used to prevent users from using up too much disk space To implement quotas, you must first install the quota package on your Linux system We then reviewed the procedure for setting up quotas for mounted file systems We pointed out that you can set quotas for the number of blocks a user is allowed to consume (disk space) and the number of inodes a user may consume (number of files) For both of these parameters, you can set hard and soft limits A user may temporarily exceed soft limits for a time you define as the grace period A user may not exceed a hard limit You can enter the repquota av command at the shell prompt to view a report displaying hard and soft limits as well as current user space usage
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