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Storing shell commands in bash_history
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9: Using the Linux Shell
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FIGURE 9-6
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Searching your command history
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If you use cat to view this file, you ll see that it is just a simple (hidden) text file that contains all of your previously entered shell commands, one on each line This file is continually updated each time you enter a shell command If you press the key at the shell prompt, bash will read this file and display the last command you entered If you press the key repeatedly, you can scroll through a list of your last used commands When you arrive at the one you want, simply press to execute the command I love this feature, especially if I need to retype a very long, complex command Just hit the key and press ! If you don t want to arrow through all of your past commands to find the one you want, you can also enter a part of the command you need and then press The bash shell will search through your command history and display the most recent matching command The result is shown in Figure 9-6 Let s practice using command history in the following exercise
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EXERCISE 9-1
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In this exercise, you will practice using command history in the bash shell Complete the following: 1 Boot your Linux system and log in as a standard user If you used the lab exercise in 3 to install your system, you can log in as tux with a password of M3linux273 2 At the shell prompt, enter ls l /var/log 3 At the shell prompt, enter pwd 4 At the shell prompt, enter whoami
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Use the Bourne Again Shell
6 Use the 7 Use the
key to run the pwd command again
key to run the whoami command again
In addition to command history, the bash shell also offers command completion Let s talk about this feature next
Using Command Completion
I also love the command completion feature offered by the bash shell This feature is extremely helpful when you need to enter a very long file name in a command line The command completion feature allows you to simply press the key while entering a command at the shell prompt When you do, the bash shell guesses what it is you want to type and then automatically completes the command for you For example, in Figure 9-7, a file named vmware-linux-toolstargz exists in root s home directory I need to extract this tarball archive so I can install the application it contains If I wanted to, I could type out the full command tar zxvf /vmwarelinux-toolstargz at the shell prompt and tar would take care of this for me However, if you re like me, your fingers don t always do what you tell them to do I tend to make a lot of typos when I m typing commands, especially when dealing with long file names as in this example Therefore, I could also opt to use command completion to take care of the typing for me I could enter tar zxvf /vmw at the shell prompt, as shown in Figure 9-7 Then I can press the key When I do, the bash shell looks at the files in the current directory that begin with vmw and determines that I probably am referring to the vmware-linux-toolstargz file It then tacks this file on to the end of my command, as shown in Figure 9-8 All I then have to do is press Command completion is great!
FIGURE 9-7
Entering part of a command at the shell prompt
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9: Using the Linux Shell
FIGURE 9-8
Using command completion
Let s practice using command completion in the following exercise
EXERCISE 9-2
ON THE CD
Using Command Completion
In this exercise, you will practice using command completion in the bash shell Complete the following: 1 If necessary, boot your Linux system and log in as a standard user If you used the lab exercise in 3 to install your system, you can log in as tux with a password of M3linux273 2 Change to your root user account by entering su followed by your root password 4 Press the key twice A list of all files in /var/log/ that start with m should be displayed
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