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Creating an input file in the vi editor
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9: Using the Linux Shell
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FIGURE 9-32
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Redirecting input at the command line
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With this file created, I can specify that it be used as an input with the sort command I would do this by entering sort </words at the shell prompt The output is then displayed on the screen as shown in Figure 9-32
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You want to write the stdout from the mount command to a file named mountedfs and the stderr to a file named fserr What command would you use to do this You want to write the stdout from the top command to a file named myprocesses without overwriting the existing contents of the file What command would you use to do this You would enter mount 1>mountedfs 2>fserr
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You would enter top 1>>myprocesses or top >myprocesses
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Manage Shell Command Inputs and Outputs
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Let s practice working with redirection in the following exercise
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EXERCISE 9-5
ON THE CD
Redirecting Input and Output
In this exercise, you will practice redirecting input and output Complete the following: 1 If necessary, boot your Linux system and log in as a standard user If you used the lab exercise in 3 to install your system, you can log in as tux with a password of M3linux273 2 Change to your root user account by entering su followed by your root password 3 Use tail to view the last lines of your /var/log/messages file and redirect the standard output to a text file in your home directory by entering tail /var/log/ messages 1>lastlines 4 Enter ls l* and verify that the lastlines file was created 5 Use the cat command to view the lastlines file 6 Append the last lines of the content of your /var/log/firewall log file to lastlines by entering tail /var/log/firewall 1>>lastlines at the shell prompt 7 Send standard error to a log file by entering tail /var/log/mylog 2>errorout at the shell prompt 8 View the errorout file with cat Why was an error generated by the preceding command 9 Using the vi editor, create a new file named mywords in your home directory Add the following words to the file, each on a separate line: Linux Is The Greatest Operating System!
10 Save the file and exit vi 11 Send the mywords file to the stdin of the sort command by entering sort </mywords at the shell prompt 12 The sort command should send the words from the file to the stdout (the screen) in alphabetical order
9: Using the Linux Shell
In addition to redirecting input or output from a command, you can also pipe outputs Let s discuss how this is done next
Piping Information
Redirection is great, but it has one weakness It only allows us to redirect to or from a file in the file system or a system device What if we needed to redirect the output from one command to the input of another command Can this be done You bet it can! This is done using pipes As we ve gone through the various exercises and examples presented thus far in this book, we ve many times used piping to send output from one command to another In this part of the chapter, we re going to explain how this is done We ll cover the following:
Using pipes to move information between commands Using awk and sed to manipulate text
Let s begin by learning how to use pipes to move information between shell commands
Using Pipes to Move Information Between Commands
Pipes are extremely useful when you re working at the shell prompt As I mentioned, we ve actually used pipes many times so far in this course Now you re going to learn exactly why we did what we did For example, many times we ve used |more with the cat or ls commands The pipe character (|) used in the command tells the shell to take the output of the first command and send it on to the second program specified For example, if I enter cat /var/log/messages |more at the shell prompt, the cat command reads the contents of the /var/log/messages file and sends it to the stdout Normally, this would be displayed on the screen However, because we are using a pipe, the shell knows that it should not display the stdout from cat on the screen Instead, it takes the stdout from cat and sends it as the stdin for the next command listed in this case, the more command The more command then takes the output from cat and performs its manipulations on it, which is to display the text on the screen one line at a time Pipes can be used with any command that produces output of some sort and accepts input of some sort A great example is the grep command You can use grep alone from the command line, of course However, it s very handy when used in a pipe in conjunction with another command The syntax of the command is command |grep expression Doing this pipes the output of the first command to the input of grep, which then searches the information for the specified expression
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