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One of the key tasks you need to complete is to manage the processes running on the Linux systems you support In this part of this chapter we re going to review how to do this We re going to discuss the following topics:
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Starting system processes Viewing running processes Prioritizing processes Managing foreground and background processes Ending a running process
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Let s begin by learning how to start processes
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There are two basic ways to start a process on a Linux system For a user process, you simply enter the command or script name at the shell prompt For example, to run the vi program, you simply enter vi at the shell prompt When you do, the vi process is created, as shown in Figure 10-7
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10: Managing Linux Processes and Services
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FIGURE 10-7
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For system processes, however, you use an init script An init script is used by the init process to start processes on system boot These scripts are stored in a specific directory on your Linux system Which directory they are stored in depends on your Linux distribution Most Linux distributions use one of two types of init scripts:
System V
Linux distributions that use System V init scripts store them in the /etc/rcd directory Within /etc/rcd are a series of subdirectories named rc0d through rc6d Each of these directories is associated with a particular runlevel (which we ll discuss later in this book) Within each of these subdirectories are symbolic links that point to the init scripts for your system daemons, which reside in /etc/rcd/initd Red Hat Linux and Fedora use System V type init scripts Other Linux distributions use BSD-style init scripts These scripts reside in the /etc/initd directory Within /etc/initd are a series of directories named rc0d through rc6d As with System V init scripts, these directories are associated with specific runlevels These directories contain links that point to the init scripts in /etc/initd SUSE Linux uses this type of init script
BSD
In addition to using the init process to run these scripts, you can run these scripts from the command prompt Simply enter /etc/initd/script_name at the shell prompt (on a BSD-style system) or /etc/rcd/initd/script_name (on a System V style system) If you re not sure of which script name you should use, you can use the ls command to generate a listing of scripts in the script directory This is shown in Figure 10-8
Manage Running Processes
FIGURE 10-8
Init scripts in /etc/initd
The actual scripts in your init directory depend on which services you ve installed on your particular system Whenever you use the rpm utility to install a service on your system, a corresponding init script is automatically installed in your init script directory Once there, you can run any script by simply running it from the command prompt The syntax is (on a BSD-style system):
/etc/initd/script_name start | stop | restart
For example, to run the smb service, you would enter /etc/initd/smb start at the shell prompt To stop it, you would enter /etc/initd/smb stop To restart it, you would enter /etc/initd/smb restart
10: Managing Linux Processes and Services
On some distributions, such as SUSE Linux, you can also use the rc script to start, stop, or restart a service process without having to specify the full path to the script file The syntax is rcscript_name start | stop | restart For example, to start the smb service, you could enter rcsbm start at the shell prompt To stop it, you could enter rcsmb stop You could also use the restart option to restart it Now that you know how to start and stop system processes, let s discuss how you go about viewing your running processes
Viewing Running Processes
As we ve gone through this chapter, I ve provided you with graphics that show the processes running on a Linux system In this part of the chapter, we re going to discuss how to view running processes on your system We ll cover the following tools:
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