zebra barcode printer vb net You would enter ps at the shell prompt in Software

Generate Code128 in Software You would enter ps at the shell prompt

You would enter ps at the shell prompt
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You would enter ps e at the shell prompt
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Manage Running Processes
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Because Linux is a multitasking operating system, you can specify a priority level for each process Doing so determines how much CPU time a given process gets in relation to other processes on the system By default, Linux tries to equalize the amount of CPU time given to all of the processes on the system However, there may be times when you need to adjust the priority assigned to a process Depending on how the system is deployed, you may want a particular process to have a higher priority than other processes This can be done using several Linux utilities In this part of the chapter, we ll review the following:
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Setting priorities with nice Setting priorities of running processes with renice
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Let s begin by learning how to use the nice utility
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The nice utility can be used on Linux to launch a program with a different priority level Recall from our previous discussion of top and ps that each process running on your system has a PR and NI value associated with it This is shown in Figure 10-16 The PR value is the process kernel priority The higher the number, the higher the priority of the process The lower the number, the lower the priority of the process The NI value is the nice value of the process The nice value is factored into the kernel calculations that determine the priority of the process The nice value for any Linux process can range between 20 and +19 Again, the lower the number, the higher the priority of the process You can t directly manipulate the priority of a process, but you can manipulate the process nice value The easiest way to do this is to set the nice value when you initially run the command that launches the process This is done using the nice command The syntax for using nice is nice n nice_level command For example, suppose I wanted to launch the vi program and increase its priority on the system by decreasing its nice level to a value of 5 Before doing so, vi runs on my system with a priority of 78 This is shown in Figure 10-17 Notice in Figure 10-17 that the vi process has a default nice level of 0 The kernel uses this value to calculate the overall priority of the process, which comes out to a value of 78 I could adjust this priority level to a higher level by entering nice n 15 vi at the shell prompt After doing so, the priority and nice values of the vi process are decreased, increasing its priority level on the system This is shown in Figure 10-18
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10: Managing Linux Processes and Services
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FIGURE 10-16
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Viewing PR and NI values
FIGURE 10-17
The default priority of vi
Manage Running Processes
FIGURE 10-18
Changing the priority of vi with the nice command
Notice in Figure 10-18 that the nice value was decreased to a value of 15 This caused the overall priority of the process to be reduced to a value of 61 Be aware that Linux is hesitant to allow you to reduce the value of nice for processes running on the system Because Linux is a true multi-user operating system, it s possible for multiple users on the same system to adjust the nice values of their own processes Naturally, every user on the system thinks that his or her process is much more important than anyone else s and may be tempted to crank that nice value clear down to 20 for just about everything they run To keep this from happening, Linux won t let you adjust the nice value of a process below 0 unless you are logged in as root Basically, if you aren t root, you won t be allowed to use a negative number with the nice command The nice command works great for modifying the nice value when running a command to start a process But what can you do if the process you want to modify is already running You can t use nice in this situation You have to use the renice command instead Let s discuss how renice works next
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