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1 In the GRUB menu, press the
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2 When prompted that you are leaving the graphical boot menu, select OK When you do, the text-based GRUB menu is displayed, as shown in Figure 11-14 3 If you want to edit the menu item, press When you do, the screen in Figure 11-15 is displayed
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Con gure Linux Bootloaders
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FIGURE 11-14
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The text-based GRUB menu
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In this screen, you can arrow up or down to select the appropriate line and then press again to edit If you want to add a new line, press Press when you re ready to start the boot process 4 You can also access a GRUB prompt by pressing When you do, the screen shown in Figure 11-16 is displayed
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FIGURE 11-15
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11: Managing the Linux Boot Process
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FIGURE 11-16
The GRUB prompt
You can enter help at the grub prompt to display information about creating GRUB menu lines from the grub> prompt You can also press to see a list of commands that you can enter at the grub> prompt You can also press to return to the GRUB menu Now that you understand how to configure the GRUB bootloader, here are some possible scenario questions and their answers
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SCENARIO & SOLUTION
Your Linux distribution installed the LILO bootloader by default when it was installed You want to use GRUB instead How can you overwrite LILO with GRUB You need to configure the GRUB bootloader on a SUSE Linux system However, you can t find the grubconf file in /boot/grub Why is this You want to configure your GRUB bootloader on your Linux system such that the second menu item is the default item loaded if the user doesn t make a selection What command would you need to enter in the GRUB configuration file You can enter grub-install device_name at the shell prompt For example, if you want to install GRUB on your first IDE hard drive, you would enter grubinstall /dev/hda Some distributions, including SUSE Linux, use /boot/grub/menulst instead of grubconf to configure the GRUB bootloader You would need to add the following: default 1
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Let s practice working with the GRUB bootloader in the following exercise
EXERCISE 11-1
ON THE CD
Working with GRUB
In this exercise, you will practice customizing your GRUB menu This exercise assumes that you ve installed a distribution such as SUSE Linux or Fedora, which uses GRUB by default Complete the following: 1 Boot your Linux system and log in as a standard user If you used the lab exercise in 3 to install your system, you can log in as tux with a password of M3linux273 2 Open a terminal session 3 Switch to your root user account by entering su followed by your root user s password 4 At the shell prompt, enter ls l /boot/grub Identify whether your distribution uses the grubconf or the menulst file to configure grub 5 At the shell prompt, enter vi /boot/grub/menulst or vi /boot/grub/ grubconf, depending on which file your system uses 7 Scroll down to the timeout line 8 Change the value of timeout to 12 10 Save your changes to the file and exit vi by entering :exit 11 At the shell prompt, enter reboot Wait while the system restarts 12 Notice in the GRUB menu that you now have 12 seconds to make a selection before the default menu item is started
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6 Press
9 Press
Before we finish discussing bootloaders, we need to discuss how to create a dual-boot system Let s do that next
11: Managing the Linux Boot Process
Using a Bootloader to Create a Dual-Boot System
If you take a look at the Linux+ objectives, you ll see that the objective covering bootloaders requires that you know how to create a dual-boot system When we say dual-boot, we re talking about a system that can boot to either Linux or some other operating system, most likely a version of Windows Back in the late 1990s and early 2000, I used this option very frequently However, I use it less and less as the years go by The availability of virtualization software, such as VMware, makes the dual-boot option less desirable, in my opinion However, you still have to know about dual-boot for Linux+, so we re going to spend some time reviewing how this is done here We ll cover the following topics:
Dual-boot considerations Configuring a dual-boot system with GRUB Configuring a dual-boot system with NTLOADEREXE
Let s begin by discussing some considerations you need to keep in mind when creating a dual-boot system
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