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Encode Code 128 in Software 2: Working with PC Hardware

2: Working with PC Hardware
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After discussing memory, we turned our attention to the expansion bus We emphasized that the expansion bus makes the modern PC modular in nature We then reviewed the ISA, PCI, and AGP expansion buses We emphasized that ISA boards must be manually configured while PCI and AGP boards can be automatically configured using PnP We also reviewed the role and function of interrupts, I/O addresses, and DMA channels We emphasized that you need to be very familiar with these system resources for your Linux+ exam We also reviewed how the PnP system works, emphasizing that PCI expansion cards use PnP and can be configured to share interrupt channels Next, we discussed the various types of storage devices used in a PC system, beginning with the floppy diskette drive We then reviewed how IDE and SCSI hard disk drives work and how they are configured We emphasized that most hard drive troubleshooting issues can be traced back to incorrect master/slave settings with IDE drives and termination/ID settings with SCSI drives We ended this topic by discussing how optical and flash memory storage devices work We finished this chapter by discussing removable hardware interfaces that are used to connect external devices to a PC We first looked at USB We noted that USB uses hubs to create a cascaded star topology that can connect up to 127 external devices We then reviewed how IEEE 1394 accomplishes a similar task using a daisy-chained bus topology We finished by reviewing the PCMCIA standard that is used to create credit card-sized expansion boards for notebook PC systems
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Power supplies convert AC current to DC current and keep the PC system
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The motherboard interconnects all of the PC devices, allowing them to
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The BIOS contains many small programs that allow the CPU to
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communicate with basic system devices such as RAM, keyboards, floppy diskette drives, and hard disk drives
The BIOS is configured using the CMOS setup program CPUs perform arithmetic and logical functions Primarily Intel and AMD manufacture PC CPUs Intel CPUs include the following: Pentium Pro Pentium II Pentium III Pentium IV Pentium D Pentium Extreme Celeron AMD CPUs include the following: K6 Athlon Athlon XP Sempron Athlon 64 Athlon 64 FX Athlon 64 X2 Dual-Core You must use the right CPU in the right CPU socket in the motherboard The motherboard clock is used to drive the CPU
2: Working with PC Hardware
CPUs use integrated cache memory to speed it up DRAM is fast, but isn t persistent System memory technology includes the following: FPM EDO SDRAM DDR-SDRAM DDR2-SDRAM System memory is packaged in the following types of modules: 72-pin SIMM 168-pin DIMM 184-pin DIMM 240-pin DIMM The ISA bus is 16 bits wide and runs at a clock speed of 833 MHz ISA cards must be manually configured ISA cards can t share interrupts The PCI bus is 32 bits wide and runs at a clock speed of 33 MHz PCI cards are self-configuring and can share interrupts The AGP bus is used only for video boards AGP is beginning to be replaced by PCI Express Interrupts are used to alert the CPU that a device needs attention Every device in the PC must have an interrupt assigned Two ISA devices cannot share an interrupt Two PCI devices can share interrupts A PCI device cannot share an interrupt with an ISA device I/O addresses are like mailboxes for PC devices I/O addresses are written in hex All devices must have an I/O address assigned Most devices will use a range of I/O addresses Devices must use unique I/O ports
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DMA channels allow a device to communicate directly with the system
RAM without using the CPU
Devices must use unique DMA channels PnP allows devices to be automatically configured with system resources
when the PC is booted
A PnP system requires three components: A PnP-compatible BIOS A PnP-compatible device A PnP-compatible operating system Floppy diskettes save data on a coated Mylar disk Floppy drives are being phased out Hard disks use coated aluminum platters to store data Drive geometry consists of the following parameters: Heads Cylinders Sectors Per Track IDE hard drives have the disk controller integrated into the drive itself IDE uses master and slave drives An IDE channel can only have one master drive Most PCs provide two IDE channels (Primary and Secondary) SCSI hard drives are used mostly in server systems SCSI devices are connected in a chain Each SCSI device in the chain is assigned a SCSI ID The lower the SCSI ID, the higher the device s priority Both ends of the SCSI chain must be terminated and nothing in between Optical drives use pits and lands to represent binary 0 s and 1 s Writable optical discs use a special photo-reactive coating that can be used to
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