free visual basic barcode generator The Concept of JDBC in Java

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The Concept of JDBC
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Sun Microsystems faced a challenge in the late 1990s They had to find a way for Java developers to write high-level Java code to access popular DBMS products
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CHAPTER 13 JDBC and Java Data Objects
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The problem was a language barrier Each DBMS required that its own low-level language be used whenever a program needed to interact with it As a result, low-level code written to interact with Oracle needed to be rewritten to interact with DB2 Sun Microsystems created specifications for a JDBC driver and the JDBC Application Programming Interface (API) to meet this challenge The JDBC driver specifications described detail functionality of how the JDBC driver should work It was up to the DBMS manufacturers to build the drivers The JDBC driver is a translator that converts low-level proprietary DBMS messages to messages that are understood by the Java run-time environment The driver also converts Java code written using the JDBC API to low-level proprietary DBMS messages through the Java run-time environment This two-way street enables Java developers to write instructions in Java that can talk to any DBMS so long as a JDBC driver is available for the DBMS JDBC drivers are available for nearly every commercial DBMS from the Sun Microsystems website (wwwsuncom) or from the DBMS manufacturer s website
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JDBC Driver Types
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JDBC drivers fall into four groups, which are called the JDBC driver types The JDBC driver types are as follows:
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Type 1 JDBC to ODBC driver This driver type converts the Java JDBC
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API to Microsoft s Open Database Connection (ODBC) driver, which in turn talks to the DBMS The ODBC driver is also called the JDBC/ODBC bridge Avoid using the JDBC/ODBC bridge in a mission-critical application because the extra translation might negatively impact performance Type 2 Java/Native Code driver The Java/Native Code driver is specific to each DBMS The disadvantage of using a Java/Native Code driver is the loss of code portability Type 3 JDBC driver The Type 3 JDBC driver is referred to as the Java Protocol and is the most commonly used JDBC driver Type 4 JDBC driver Type 4 JDBC driver is known as the Type 4 Database Protocol and is similar to the Type 3 JDBC driver, except SQL queries are translated into the format required by the DBMS This is the fastest way to communicate SQL queries to the DBMS
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JDBC API Packages
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You don t have to be concerned about JDBC drivers except to make sure that the proper JDBC driver for your DBMS is installed Instead, you ll focus on using the JDBC API to have your program communicate with the DBMS The JDBC API consists of a bunch of classes that are contained in two packages The first package is called javasql and contains core Java data objects of the JDBC API The second package is called javaxsql and extends the javasql package As you ll see throughout this chapter, you ll need to import both the javaxsql and the javasql package into your program in order to use the JDBC API to connect to and interact with the DBMS
The JDBC Process
Your program needs to perform five routines to connect the DBMS before you begin interacting with it Collectively, these five routines are called the JDBC process and are as follows: 1 Load the JDBC driver 2 Connect to the DBMS 3 Create and execute an SQL query 4 Process the response from the DBMS 5 Disconnect the DBMS
Load the JDBC Driver
The first routine is to load the JDBC driver This tells the Java run-time environment which JDBC driver to use with your program You load the JDBC driver by calling the ClassforName() class and passing it the name of the driver as an argument to the method We ll be using the JDBC/ODBC bridge as the driver in the examples throughout this chapter because this is the driver you use to connect your program to Microsoft Access, which is the DBMS most likely to be available on your computer The JDBC/ODBC bridge is called sunjdbcodbcJdbcOdbcDriver You load this driver by placing the following statement in your program:
ClassforName( "sunjdbcodbcJdbcOdbcDriver");
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