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CHAPTER 2 Data Types and Variables
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Now that you understand how numbers are stored in a computer, you re probably wondering how letters, punctuation, and other characters found on the keyboard are stored The answer lies in a secret code Well, it is really a not-so-secret code A consortium of hardware and software manufacturers in the late 1980s assigned a unique 16-digit (decimal numbering system) number to each character used in the languages throughout the world They called it Unicode Unicode has room to represent 1,114,112 individual characters, although about 95,221 characters are currently represented in Unicode, which includes nearly all characters used in the languages around the world Each character requires two bytes of memory (16 switches) in order to store the character in memory Prior to the adoption of Unicode, programmers used the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) code to represent characters The ASCII code uses one byte of memory, but it is based on seven bits of the byte, so it has room to represent 128 characters It soon became apparent that the ASCII code wasn t sufficient as computer usage spread around the global, because languages such as Russian, Arabic, Japanese, and Chinese have more than 128 characters For example, Chinese ideographs have 21,000 characters The adoption of Unicode addresses this concern The first 128 characters and corresponding values in Unicode are the same as in ASCII Fortunately, you don t have to be concerned about Unicode or ASCII because the Java compiler automatically converts characters to the binary equivalent of their Unicode value Let s say your program has prompted a user to enter his first name (in this case, Bob) and has saved it to memory Each letter of the name is converted to its equivalent Unicode value, which is shown in Table 2-1 as a decimal number The equivalent binary value of the Unicode value is used to determine switch (memory) settings Upper- and lowercase letters are assigned their own Unicode value Numbers that are used as characters also have a Unicode value These are typically numbers used for street addresses, ZIP codes, and other situations where the number is not used in a calculation It is important to understand that the Unicode value is a number just like any number For example, the Unicode value 66 is the number 66 The computer treats the Unicode value 66 the same as if you entered the number 66 into the computer There is no difference
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Character B o b Unicode (Decimal) 66 111 98 Binary 0000000001000010 0000000001101111 0000000001100010
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Table 2-1
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Unicode and Binary Values of Bob
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You are probably wondering how a program knows that the number 66 really means the character B and not simply the number 66 It knows the difference because of the way the programmer writes the program If the programmer uses the keyword char in the program, then the number is converted to its Unicode letter If the programmer uses the keyword int (or one of a number of similar keywords, which you ll learn about later in this chapter), then the number is treated as a number
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Looking Up the Unicode Value
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The Unicode value of a character can be determined in a number of ways The most direct way is to let the computer tell you the Unicode value You can do this by running the following Java program Replace the letter B with the character you want to look up Make sure you place the character within single quotations The program displays the Unicode decimal value of the character You ll learn the details of how this program works later in this chapter when you learn about data types and variables:
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class Demo { public static void main( String args[]) { char x = 'B'; double a = x; Systemoutprintln("Unicode is " + a); } }
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