visual basic 2008 barcode generator Data Types and Variables in Java

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CHAPTER 2 Data Types and Variables
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Group Integer Integer Integer Integer Character Floating point Floating point Boolean
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Data Type byte short int long char float double boolean
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Data Type Size in Bits 8 16 32 64 16 (Unicode) 32 64 1
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Range of Values 128 to 127 32,768 to 32,767 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 65,000 (Unicode) 34e-038 to 34e+038 17e-308 to 17e+308 0 or 1
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Table 2-3
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Simple Java Data Types
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Your job is to select the data type that provides your program with sufficient memory to store data Table 2-3 shows the range of values that can be stored in each data type Refer to this table whenever you are choosing a data type for your application in order to ensure you reserve enough memory to store the data Let s say your program needs to store 2,147,483,650 in memory By consulting Table 2-3, you ll notice that this value is beyond the range of the int data type This means if you had told Java to reserve an int data type and your program stored 2,147,483,650 into that memory location, some of the data would be lost because there is simply not enough room to store this number The long data type is the preferred choice because this value fits within the range of the long data type Every data type falls into one of four of the following groups:
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Integer Stores whole numbers and signed numbers Floating point Stores real numbers (whole numbers and fractional values) Character Stores characters Boolean Stores a true or false value
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Integer Data Types
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The integer data type group contains four data types: byte, short, int, and long These are used to store signed values (A signed value is a number that is either positive or negative) Unlike other programming languages, such as C++, Java doesn t permit the storage of unsigned values You might be curious about the importance of signed and unsigned numbers The issue surrounds the largest value of a signed number that can be stored in memory
Java Demystified
As you can see in Table 2-3, the byte data type reserves one box (a byte) that holds eight bits One of those bits is used to represent the sign The other seven bits are used to hold the value of the number The smallest value can be 128, and the largest value can be 127 However, by treating the value as an unsigned number, we can use all eight bits to represent the value This means the smallest value is 0 and the largest is 256 A larger number can be stored in same memory size if the number is always positive
byte
The byte data type is the smallest data type in the integer group You tell Java to reserve enough memory to store a byte by using the keyword byte You won t use the byte data type often in your program unless your program sends and receives information to and from a file or over a computer network Programmers use the byte data type when working with binary data that isn t compatible with other data types, such as reading a graphics file that contains a picture
short
The short data type is the least used of the data types in the integer data type group This is because programmers have traditionally used the short data type for programs that took advantage of the efficiencies of a 16-bit computer However, 16-bit computers have been replaced with 64-bit computers, making the short data type practically obsolete
The int data type is the most frequently used data type in the integer data type group It is used for control variables ( 4) and array indexes ( 5), and it s used for performing integer math You ll notice in Table 2-3 that an int data type tells Java to reserve 32 bits of memory Depending on the nature of their program, some programmers feel 32 bits is too much memory for the value they intend to store in memory Therefore, they use a byte or short data type instead of an int data type This is a false savings because the choice of data type tells Java the kind of data your program will store in memory Your choice doesn t direct Java to use the data type you choose The Java Virtual Machine has the ultimate say in deciding how much memory to reserve However, you can be assured that the Java Virtual Machine will reserve sufficient memory to store the value placed there by your program
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