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Types of Methods
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The two types of methods are nonstatic methods and static methods A nonstatic method is a method that is a member of a class and can only be called by an instance of that class A static method is also member of a class, but it can be called without having to be declared by an instance of the class Typically the task performed by a nonstatic method is dependent on data stored in an instance of the class For example, suppose you have a class called student that has a nonstatic method called display() The display() nonstatic method displays information about a student that s contained in the class You ll learn all about classes in 7
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CHAPTER 6 Methods and Polymorphism
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A static method usually performs tasks that are not directly associated with data members of the class In fact, a static method may not have any relationship with the class other than being a static method of it Many of the methods you will use in your programs will be member methods
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The Method Definition
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Before a method can be called within a program, it must be defined in a method definition within the definition of a class A method definition contains all the statements necessary for the method to perform a task, and it s organized into two parts: the method header and the body of the method
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The Method Header
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The method header consists of three basic elements, but it sometimes includes an access and behavioral modifier We ll explore the basic elements in this section You ll learn about the other elements in 7 The three basic elements are the method name, the method argument list, and the data type of the value returned by the method The method name and method argument list are collectively referred to as the method signature, which uniquely identifies a method from other methods The method name is a name you give to the method The name should reflect the task that the method performs For example, display() is a good name for a method that displays data on the screen because the name implies the task performed by the method Also, the name must conform to the Java Naming Convention (see 1) The method argument list consists of the data the method needs to perform the task You ll recall that in 5 we defined a method that calculates a grade based on the number of correct answers and the number of questions on a test This method requires both of these data elements in order to calculate the grade These are passed to the method s argument list by the statement that calls the method The method argument list is formed by specifying the data type and name of each data element passed to the method This is shown in the next example Two arguments are shown here The first argument is the number of correct answers, and the second argument is the number of questions on the test Both are of the int data type
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calcGrade( int correctAns, int numberTestQuestions)
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The name of an argument should reflect the nature of the data stored in the argument The name must also conform to the Java Naming Convention You use the name of the argument within statements of the method whenever you need to refer to
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Java Demystified
the data stored in the argument For example, you would use correctAns to refer to the number of correct answers given by the student Any number of arguments can be included in an argument list as long as a comma separates the arguments and the name of each argument is unique That is, you cannot have two arguments called correctAns The argument list is optional Only a method that requires data from the statement that called the method needs to have an argument list However, the method definition still requires the parentheses even if there isn t an argument list, as shown in the following example:
display ()
The remaining part of the method header is the data type of the return value Some methods return data back to the statement that called the method after the method completes its task Other methods don t return anything back If data is returned by the method, you must include the data type of that data in the method header If data isn t returned by the method, you must use void as the data type The keyword void infers nothing (that is, no return data type) Don t confuse void (nothing) with zero Zero is a value, whereas void is the absence of a value The data type of the data returned by the method is placed to the left of the method name, as shown in this example, where the method returns a float:
float calcGrade( int correctAns, int numberTestQuestions)
However, if the calcGrade() method didn t return data, void is placed to the left of the method name, as shown here:
void calcGrade(int correctAns, int numberTestQuestions)
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