visual basic 2008 barcode generator The Method Body in Java

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The Method Body
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The body of the method is defined within the opening and closing braces and appears below the method header This is where you place statements that are executed when the method is called Java executes the first statement below the opening brace and continues to execute statements sequentially until the closing brace is reached or until a return statement is executed The following example illustrates how to construct the body of a method:
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void calcGrade(int correctAns, int numberTestQuestions) { //Place statements here }
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CHAPTER 6 Methods and Polymorphism
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The Method Return Value
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Depending on the task performed by a method, the method may return data to the statement that called it For example, the calcGrade() method shown previously in this chapter calculates and returns a grade Programmers call data that is returned by a method a return value The return value is placed to the right of the keyword return in a return statement Java immediately exits the method and returns to the statement that called the method when the return statement executes Statements below the return statement are not executed A return value can be a literal, a variable, or an object Some programmers place an expression in the return statement Java then evaluates the expression and returns the result of the expression The return value must be compatible with the return data type specified in the method header; otherwise, you ll receive a compiler error A return statement can be placed anywhere in the body of a method Keep in mind that no statement below the return statement is executed once Java executes the return statement Typically programmers place a return statement immediately before the closing brace in the body of the method if the method has a return value The return statement is excluded from a method if the method doesn t have a return value Multiple return statements can be used to return different return values, depending on conditions within the body of the method Say you created a method to validate a user password The value 0 is returned if the password is valid A value of 1 is returned if the password is invalid Two return statements are used within an ifelse statement One within an if statement that is executed only if the password is valid, and the other in an else statement that is executed if the password is invalid Only one ever executes This is illustrated in the following code segment, where the password entered by the user is assigned to the variable password:
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if (password == "Bob") return 0; else return 1;
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Some programmers always use a return statement in a method, even if the method doesn t require a return value They do so to signal whether or not the method successfully performed the task A zero is returned if the task was performed successfully A nonzero number is returned if the method had problems performing a task Some programmers return a negative number to signal that a problem has occurred Other programmers return a positive value that corresponds to the error that helps them identify the problem This is commonly referred to as an error code
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Let s return to the method that validates a user password and see how error codes are used The validation task consists of three subtasks The first subtask is to open the database that contains valid passwords The second subtask is to search for the user password passed by the statement that called the method The third subtask is to report back the password s status We could return 1 if the first subtasks fails because the method couldn t open the database Likewise, we could return 2 if there is a problem searching the database If both subtasks are successfully completed, we could return 0 if the user password is valid and 1 if it isn t valid Error codes are commonly used only in complex programs and methods, where it is difficult and time consuming to track down problems occurring in the program The following example is a complete method definition that illustrates how to return a value to the statement that called the method This example calculates and returns a test grade You ll notice that the return statement contains an expression rather than a return value Remember that Java evaluates the expression before executing the return statement The result of the expression replaces the expression in the return statement, and the result is returned
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float calcGrade(int correctAns, int totalQuestions) { return (correctAns / totalQuestions) * 100; }
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