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In the real world, a series of statements might generate more than one kind of runtime error Therefore, programmers use multiple catch blocks, each one designed to catch a specific type of exception Multiple catch blocks must immediately follow the try block where the exception might be thrown Also, each of those catch blocks must follow one another, which is illustrated in the next example When an exception occurs, Java throws the exception to each catch block in the order the catch blocks appear beneath the related try block Let s say there are two catch blocks If the first catch block catches the exception, the second catch block isn t thrown the exception because the first catch block handles it The following example shows how to use multiple catch blocks within your program This example is nearly the same as the previous example, except an array is used instead of variables We do this in order to demonstrate how the second catch block works The second catch block catches the exception
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CHAPTER 9 Exception Handling
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ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException, which is thrown if the program uses an index that is out of bounds of the array Notice that the program references a[3] in the calculation However, there isn t an index 3 Therefore, Java throws an out-ofbounds exception, causing the second catch block to display the following message on the screen:
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Error: javalangArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 3 class Demo { public static void main (String args[]) { try { int a[] = new int[3]; a[0] = 10; a[1] = 0; a[2] = a[0]/a[3]; } catch (ArithmeticException e) { Systemoutprintln("Error: " + e); } catch (ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e) { Systemoutprintln("Error: " + e); } } }
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The Finally Block
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The finally block is used to place statements that must execute regardless of whether an exception is or is not thrown That is, statements within the finally block execute all the time Typically, programmers place statements within a finally block that release resources reserved by the program For example, a connection to a database might have been opened at the beginning of the program If an exception is thrown before the program properly terminates, the database connection might still be open Programmers resolve this problem by placing statements that close the database connection in the finally block, because statements in the finally block are executed whether there is or isn t an exception thrown The following example illustrates how to use the finally block in your program You ll notice that this example is the same as the previous example, except we included the finally block The finally block contains one statement that displays a message on the screen, showing you that the statement executed:
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class Demo { public static void main (String args[]) {
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try { int a[] = new int[3]; a[0] = 10; a[1] = 0; a[2] = a[0]/a[3]; } catch (ArithmeticException e) { Systemoutprintln("Error: " + e); } catch (ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e) { Systemoutprintln("Error: " + e); } finally { Systemoutprintln( "The finally block executed"); } } }
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Working with Uncaught Exceptions
Although there are many exceptions that can occur when your program executes, you don t have to write a catch block to catch all of them It is simply not feasible to do so Instead, any exception that doesn t have a catch block in your program is caught by Java s default catch block, which is called the default handler The default handler displays two kinds of information on the screen whenever it catches an exception: a string that describes the exception and a stack trace A stack trace shows you what has been executed, beginning with a point in your program where the exception was thrown to the point when the program terminated This is clearly illustrated in the next example, which causes a divide by zero exception to be thrown Notice that this example does not contain a try block or a catch block Therefore, all exceptions are caught by the default handler
class Demo { public static void main (String args[]) { int a = 10, b = 0, c; c = a/b; } }
Here s what the default handler displays on the screen when it encounters the exception:
Exception in thread "main" javalangArithmeticException: / by zero at demomain(demojava:4)
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