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Sometimes programmers find it advantageous to throw an exception explicitly from the program whenever the program encounters an error that can be addressed by a
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CHAPTER 9 Exception Handling
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catch block Let s say that user input is used as the divisor for a calculation The program determines that the input is zero and therefore would lead to a divide by zero error if the expression is calculated Rather than perform the calculation, the programmer could write statements to have the program explicitly throw a divide by zero exception Programmers also explicitly throw an exception to test the function of catch blocks Think about this for a second You can write catch blocks to process exceptions, but there isn t any way to test these catch blocks until an exception occurs and the exception may never occur during testing Programmers throw an exception during testing in order to determine how successful a catch block handles an exception You explicitly throw an exception by using the throw keyword in a statement within your program The throw keyword must be followed by the exception that is being thrown The exception is specified using the new operator, the name of the exception, and the error message that is to be displayed when the exception is caught by a catch block The f ollowing example illustrates how to explicitly throw an ArithmeticException This example evaluates the divisor before performing a calculation If the divisor is zero, the exception is thrown rather than the calculation being performed The statement that calls the throw keyword uses the new operator to create an instance of the ArithmeticException exception In this example, ArithmeticException() is a constructor that accepts a parameter that is used as the error message There is also a constructor that does not accept a parameter It is used if you don t want to create your own exceptions message The catch block matches the exception and therefore catches it The parameter e contains the following value:
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javalangArithmeticException: Divide by zero
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The first part is provided by Java and the Divide by zero portion is the parameter of the ArithmeticException constructor The catch block also corrects the problem by assigning zero to variable a, which is then displayed on the screen by the statement following the catch block
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class Demo { public static void main(String args[]) { int a = 10, b = 0, c; try { if (b == 0) throw new ArithmeticException ( "Divide by zero"); else
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c = a/b; } catch (ArithmeticException e ) { Systemoutprintln("Error: " + e); a = 0; } Systemoutprintln("a = " + a); } }
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It is important to understand that the throw keyword must use an instance of a throwable object or a subclass of a throwable object This means that you must use an exception and cannot use an int, char, or String
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Methods That Don't Handle Exceptions
A method that can cause an exception does not have to handle the exception However, the method header must specify the exceptions that the method can cause In this way, a programmer who calls the method can provide a catch block to handle any exceptions that are not caught by the method You specify exceptions by using the keyword throws in the method header to the right of the parameter list Programmers call this the exception list A comma must separate each exception in the exception list The programmer who calls the method does not have to provide any catch blocks to catch the exceptions the method throws The default handler provided by Java catches exceptions that are not caught by the program The following example shows how to specify exceptions that are thrown but not caught by a method Two exceptions can be thrown by myMethod() These are ArithmeticException and ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException However, myMethod() does not catch either of them The main() method does catch the ArithmeticException exception, but it leaves Java s default handler to catch the ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException exception
class Demo { static void myMethod() throws ArithmeticException, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException { int a[] = new int[3]; a[0] = 10; a[1] = 0; a[2] = a[0]/a[1]; Systemoutprintln("Inside myMethod"); }
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