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Methods Defined in the Throwable Class
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The name of your new exception is the name of the class that defines the exception Suppose we wanted to create an exception called DivideByZero We ll use this in place of ArithmeticException, the exception used in the examples throughout this chapter In order to create the DivideByZero exception, we need to define a class called DivideByZero and then inherit the Exception class You ll recall from 8 that we inherit a superclass by using the keyword extends followed by the name of the superclass, as shown here:
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class DivideByZero extends Exception
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The class definition contains statements that handle the exception You can place any statements you want in the class definition Some programmers simply have
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their exception class display a message on the screen, which is what we ll do in the following exception class definition The DivideByZero class contains three members: an integer variable, a constructor, and a method member The program explicitly throws the exception by calling the DivideByZero constructor and passes it an integer that represents details about the exception The constructor assigns the integer to the detail variable The toString() method member then returns the message displayed on the screen by the program
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class DivideByZero extends ArithmeticException { private int detail; DivideByZero () { detail = 0; } DivideByZero (int a) { detail = a; } public String toString() { return "DivideByZero [" + detail + "]"; } }
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The following example shows how to use your own exception within a program The example begins by defining the DivideByZero class It then defines the program class The program class defines two methods: calc() and main() The calc() method uses its parameter as the divisor in a calculation However, the calc() method determines whether parameter is zero before performing the division If it is, a DivideByZero exception is thrown If it isn t, the expression is calculated and the results are returned to the statement that calls the calc() method Notice that throws DivideByZero is used in the method header We need this because the calc() method can throw a DivideByZero exception and doesn t have a catch block to handle the exception Also notice that the DivideByZero exception is your exception and not an exception class defined by Java Once you define your own exception class, you use the name of the exception class as if you were using a Java-defined exception class The main() method calls the calc() method twice within a try block The first time the method is called, it is passed a one, which doesn t cause an exception to be thrown The second time that the method is called, it is passed a zero, which does cause a DivideByZero exception The catch block associated with the try block
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CHAPTER 9 Exception Handling
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catches this exception and handles it the same way it handles a Java-defined exception Here s what is displayed on the screen when an exception is thrown:
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Result: 1 Error: DivideByZero[0] class DivideByZero extends ArithmeticException { private int detail; DivideByZero () { detail = 0; } DivideByZero (int a) { detail = a; } public String toString() { return "DivideByZero [" + detail + "]"; } } class Demo{ static void calc(int a) throws DivideByZero { int b = 10, c; if (a == 0 ) { throw new DivideByZero (a); } else { c = b/a; Systemoutprintln("Result: " + a); } } public static void main(String args[]) { try { calc(1); calc(0); } catch (DivideByZero e) { Systemoutprintln("Error: " + e); } } }
Java Demystified
Quiz
1 What is an exception 2 What is the purpose of a try block 3 What is the purpose of a catch block 4 What happens if an exception is thrown and you didn t catch it within your program 5 What is the parent of the Exception class 6 How can you create your own exception class 7 What should you do if you define a method that might throw an exception but you don t catch the exception within the method definition 8 How many exceptions can be caught by a catch block 9 What is the purpose of the finally block 10 Can you override methods inherited by your exception class
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