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CHAPTER 11 Files and Streams
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It is important to remember that these constructors do not create a directory or subdirectory, nor do they create a file Instead, think of these constructors as pointing to either a directory path or a file Once your program can point to a directory path or file, you can call methods defined in the File class to interact with the directory path or file Table 11-1 contains a list of commonly used methods The following program shows you how to use many of these methods This program points to the \junk\test directory path and then inquires about the test subdirectory Here s what is displayed on the screen after this program runs You can change the directory path to one that you have on your computer If you do, your results might be slightly different from those shown here:
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Name: test Path: \junk\test Absolute Path: C:\junk\test Parent: \junk Exists: true Write: true Read: true Directory: true File: false Absolute: false Length: 0 import javaio*; class Demo { public static void main(String args[]) { File file1 = new File ("\\junk\\test"); Systemoutprintln("Name: " + file1getName()); Systemoutprintln("Path: " + file1getPath()); Systemoutprintln("Absolute Path: " + file1getAbsolutePath()); Systemoutprintln("Parent: " + file1getParent()); Systemoutprintln("Exists: " + file1exists()); Systemoutprintln("Write: " + file1canWrite()); Systemoutprintln("Read: " + file1canRead()); Systemoutprintln("Directory: " + file1isDirectory()); Systemoutprintln("File: " + file1isFile()); Systemoutprintln("Absolute: " + file1isAbsolute()); Systemoutprintln("Length: " + file1length()); } }
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Method isFile() Description
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Returns a Boolean true if the object is a file; otherwise, a false is returned False is also returned if the instance of the File class refers to a directory, subdirectory, a pipe, or a device driver Returns a Boolean true if the file contains an absolute path; otherwise, a Boolean false is returned Renames a directory, subdirectory, or file to the name passed to the renameTo() method Deletes the disk file Removes the file when the Java Virtual Machine terminates Returns a Boolean true if the directory path or file is hidden; otherwise, this method returns a Boolean false Sets the timestamp on the file The timestamp must specify the date and time in milliseconds, beginning with January 1, 1970 and ending with the current date and time Sets the file to read-only Compares two files The length of the file in bytes Returns a Boolean true if it is a directory; otherwise, a boolean false is returned Returns a Boolean true if the directory path or file has read permission; otherwise, a Boolean false is returned Returns a Boolean true if the directory path or file has write permission; otherwise, a Boolean false is returned Returns a Boolean true if the directory path or file exists; otherwise, a Boolean false is returned Returns the name of the parent directory path that contains the subdirectory Returns the absolute path Returns the directory path Returns the name of the directory path or file
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isAbsolute() boolean renameTo(File newName) delete() void deleteOnExit() boolean isHidden()
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boolean setLastModified( long millisec)
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boolean setReadOnly() compareTo() length() isDirectory() canRead()
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canWrite()
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exists() getParent() getAbsolutePath() getPath() getName()
Table 11-1
Methods Defined in the File Class
CHAPTER 11 Files and Streams
NOTE: Windows uses a backslash as a separator between subdirectories Unix and Linux use a forward slash for the same purpose Java converts a forward slash to a backslash if you are running a Windows machine If you use a backslash, remember that you must use two backslashes instead of one The first backslash is an escape character, and the second is the backslash This is illustrated in the previous program
Listing Files Contained in a Directory
You can return the contents of a directory by calling the list() method The list() method returns an array of strings containing the names of the files stored in the directory The list() method can only be used on a directory; therefore, you should call the isDirectory() method prior to calling the list() method to determine whether the file is in fact a directory The isDirectory() method returns a Boolean true if the file is a directory; otherwise, a Boolean false is returned The following example shows how to use the isDirectory() method and the list() method to retrieve and display the contents of a directory on the screen The example begins by referencing the temp directory The name temp is assigned to a string, which is then passed to the constructor of the File object Before searching the directory, we determine whether it is indeed a directory by calling the isDirectory() method If it is not a directory, the program displays an appropriate message on the screen; otherwise, the program proceeds to retrieve the contents of the directory The list() method is called to retrieve the contents of the directory, which is stored in an array of strings called str The program enters a for loop in order to step through elements of the string array Each entry in the array is passed to the constructor of the File class This enables us to call the isDirectory() method to determine whether the array element is a subdirectory If it is, we indicate that it is a subdirectory when the name is displayed on the screen If it s not, only the name of the entry is displayed
import javaioFile; class Demo { public static void main(String args[] ) { String dir = " /temp"; File file1 = new File(dir); if (file1isDirectory()) { Systemoutprintln( "Directory:" + dir); String str[] = file1list(); for (int i=0; i <strlength; i++) {
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