vb net barcode free Superuser Control: The Root User in Software

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Superuser Control: The Root User
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To perform system administration operations, you must first have access rights, such as the correct password, that enable you to log in as the root user, making you the superuser Because a superuser has the power to change almost anything on the system, such a password is usually a carefully guarded secret, changed very frequently, and given only to those whose job it is to manage the system With the correct password, you can log in to the system as a system administrator and configure the system in different ways You can start up and shut down the system, as well as change to a different operating mode, such as a single-user mode You can also add or remove users, add or remove whole file systems, back up and restore files, and even designate the system's name and address
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NOTE If SELinux is enabled, superuser access will be controlled by SELinux rules
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To become a superuser, you log in to the root user account This is a special account reserved for system management operations with unrestricted access to all components of your Linux operating system You can log in as the root user from either the GUI (graphical user interface) login screen or the command line login prompt You then have access to all administrative tools Using a GUI interface like GNOME, the root user has access to a number of distribution GUI administrative tools If you log in from the command line interface, you can run corresponding administrative commands like rpm to install packages or useradd to add a new user From your GUI desktop, you can also run command line administrative tools using a terminal window The command line interface for the root user uses a special prompt, the sharp sign, # In the next example, the user logs in to the system as the root user and receives the # prompt
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login: root password: #
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As the root user, you can use the passwd command to change the password for the root login, as well as for any other user on the system The passwd command will check your password with Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM), to see if you ve selected one that can be easily cracked
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# passwd root New password: Re-enter new password: #
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You must take precautions to protect your root password Anyone who gains access as the root user will have complete control over your system The online manual for the passwd command provides detailed recommendations for handling and choosing your password For example, never store your password in a file on your system, and never choose one based on any accessible information, such as your phone number or date of birth A basic guideline is to make your password as complex as possible, using a phrase of several words with numbers and upper- and lowercase letters, yet something you can still remember easily so that you never have to write it down You can access the passwd online manual page with the command
# man passwd
Root User Access: su
While you are logged in to a regular user account, it may be necessary for you to log in as the root and become a superuser Ordinarily, you would have to log out of your user account first, and then log in to the root Instead, you can use the su command (switch user) to log in directly to the root while remaining logged in to your user account If you are using a GUI desktop like GNOME, you can enter the su command from a terminal window, or use ALT-CTRL-F1 to switch to a command line interface (ALT-CTRL-F10 returns you to the GUI interface)
27:
Basic System Administration
Command su root sudo command passwd login-name telinit runlevel shutdown options time date
Description Logs a superuser into the root from a user login; the superuser returns to the original login with a CTRL-D Restricts administrative access to specified users Sets a new password for the login name Changes the system runlevels Shuts down the system Sets the date and time for the system
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