vb net barcode free System Runlevels (States), Red Hat, Fedora, SUSE, and Similar Distributions in Software

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TABLE 27-3 System Runlevels (States), Red Hat, Fedora, SUSE, and Similar Distributions
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Basic System Administration
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TIP You can use the single-user runlevel (1) as a recovery mode state, allowing you to start up your
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system without running startup scripts for services like DNS This is helpful if your system hangs when you try to start such services Networking is disabled, as well as any multiuser access You can also use linux s at the boot prompt to enter runlevel 1 If you want to enter the single-user state and also run the startup scripts, you can use the special s or S runlevel
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PART VII PART I PART I PART I PART I PART I PART I
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Runlevels in initab
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When your system starts up, it uses the default runlevel as specified in the default init entry in the /etc/inittab file For example, if your default init runlevel is 5 (the graphical login), the default init entry in the /etc/inittab file would be
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id:5:initdefault:
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You can change the default runlevel by editing the /etc/inittab file and changing the
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init default entry Editing the /etc/inittab file can be dangerous You should do this with
great care As an example, if the default runlevel is 3 (command line), the entry for your default runlevel in the /etc/inittab file should look like the following:
id:3:initdefault:
You can change the 3 to a 5 to change your default runlevel from the command line interface (3) to the graphical login (5) Change only this number and nothing else
id:5:initdefault:
TIP If your /etc/inittab file becomes corrupted, you can reboot and enter linux single at the boot
prompt to start up your system, bypassing the inittab file You can then edit the file to fix it
Changing Runlevels with telinit
No matter what runlevel you start in, you can change from one runlevel to another with the telinit command If your default runlevel is 3, you power up in runlevel 3, but you can change to, say, runlevel 5 with telinit 5 The command telinit 0 shuts down your system In the next example, the telinit command changes to runlevel 1, the administrative state:
# telinit 1
On Red Hat, Fedora, SUSE, and similar distributions, one common use of telinit to change runlevels is when you need to install a software package that requires that the X server be shut down This is the case with the graphics drivers obtained directly from Nvidia or ATI You first have to change to runlevel 3 with a telinit 3 command, shutting down the X server, and then you can install the graphics driver
telinit 3
After installation, you can return to the X server and its GUI interface with the telinit
5 command
telinit 5
Part VII:
System Administration
Keep in mind that the distribution packages for the Nvidia and ATI graphics packages are preferred to using those obtained directly from Nvidia or ATI
NOTE On Debian, Ubuntu, and similar distributions, the desktop version invokes the X server at
all primary runlevels Using telinit to switch to another runlevel will not let you shut down the X server This requires shutting down the display managers (your login screen), by running either the gdm (GNOME) or kdm (KDE) service scripts with the stop option Use the command sudo /etc/initd/gdm stop to shut down the X server The telinit command is really a symbolic link (another name for a command) to the init command The init command performs the actual startup operations and is automatically invoked when your system starts up Though you could use init to change runlevels, it is best to use telinit When invoked as telinit, init merely changes runlevels To use init, enter the init command and the runlevel number on a command line If you are in runlevel 3 (command line), the following places you in runlevel 5 (graphical interface):
init 5
The runlevel Command
Use the runlevel command to see what state you are currently running in It lists the previous state followed by the current one If you have not changed states, the previous state will be listed as N, indicating no previous state This is the case for the state you boot up in In the next example, the system is running in state 3, with no previous state change:
# runlevel N 3
Shutdown
Although you can power down the system with the telinit command and the 0 state, you can also use the shutdown command The shutdown command has a time argument that gives users on the system a warning before you power down You can specify an exact time to shut down or a period of minutes from the current time The exact time is specified by hh: mm for the hour and minutes The period of time is indicated by a + and the number of minutes The shutdown command takes several options with which you can specify how you want your system shut down The -h option, which stands for halt, simply shuts down the system, whereas the -r option shuts down the system and then reboots it In the next example, the system is shut down after ten minutes:
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