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TABLE 27-7 Syslogd Facilities, Priorities, and Operators
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qualified by a priority A priority specifies the kind of message generated by the facility; syslogd uses several designated terms to indicate different priorities A sector is constructed from both the facility and the priority, separated by a period For example, to save error messages generated by mail systems, you use a sector consisting of the mail facility and the err priority, as shown here:
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To save these messages to the /var/log/maillog file, you specify that file as the action, giving you the following entry:
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The syslogd daemon also supports the use of * as a matching character to match either all the facilities or all the priorities in a sector: cron* matches on all cron messages no matter what the priority; *err matches on error messages from all the facilities; and ** matches on all messages The following example saves all mail messages to the /var/log/ maillog file and all critical messages to the /var/log/mycritical file:
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mail* /var/log/maillog *crit /var/log/mycritical
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When you specify a priority for a facility, all messages with a higher priority are also included Thus the err priority also includes the crit, alert, and emerg priorities If you just want to select the message for a specific priority, you qualify the priority with the = operator For example, mail=err will select only error messages, not crit, alert, or emerg messages You can also restrict priorities with the ! operator This will eliminate messages with the specified priority and higher For example, mail!crit will exclude crit messages, as well as the higher alert and emerg messages To specifically exclude all the messages for an entire facility, you use the none priority; for instance, mailnone excludes all mail messages This is usually used when you re defining several sectors in the same entry You can list several priorities or facilities in a given sector by separating them with commas You can also have several sectors in the same entry by separating them with semicolons The first example saves to the /var/log/messages file all messages with info priority, excluding all mail and authentication messages (authpriv) The second saves all crit messages and higher for the uucp and news facilities to the /var/log/spooler file:
*info;mailnone;newsnone;authprivnone /var/log/messages uucp,newscrit /var/log/spooler
Actions and Users
In the action field, you can specify files, remote systems, users, or pipes An action entry for a file must always begin with a / and specify its full pathname, such as /var/log/messages To log messages to a remote host, you simply specify the hostname preceded by an @ sign The following example saves all kernel messages on rabbittrekcom:
Basic System Administration
To send messages to users, you list their login names The following example will send critical news messages to the consoles for the users chris and aleina:
PART VII PART I PART I PART I PART I PART I PART I
You can also output messages to a named pipe (FIFO) The pipe entry for the action field begins with a | The following example pipes kernel debug messages to the named pipe |/usr/adm/debug:
An Example for /etc/syslogconf
The default /etc/syslogconf file is shown here Messages are logged to various files in the /var/log directory /etc/syslogconf
# Log all kernel messages to the console #kern* /dev/console # Log anything (except mail) of level info or higher # Don't log private authentication messages! *info;mailnone;newsnone;authprivnone;cronnone
# The authpriv file has restricted access authpriv* /var/log/secure # Log all the mail messages in one place mail* /var/log/maillog # Log cron stuff cron* /var/log/cron # Everybody gets emergency messages *emerg * # Save mail and news errors of level err and higher in a special file uucp,newscrit /var/log/spooler # Save boot messages also to bootlog local7* /var/log/bootlog # INN news=crit /var/log/news/newscrit news=err /var/log/news/newserr newsnotice /var/log/news/newsnotice
The Linux Auditing System: auditd
The Linux Auditing System provides system call auditing The auditing is performed by a server called auditd, with logs saved to the /var/log/audit directory It is designed to complement SELinux, which saves its messages to the auditd log in the /var/log/audit/ auditlog file The audit logging service provides specialize logging for services like SELinux Logs are located at /var/log/audit To refine the auditing, you can create audit rules to check certain system calls like those generated by a specific user or group Configuration for auditd is located in both the /etc/auditdconf and the /etd/sysconfig/ auditd files Primary configuration is handled with /etc/auditdconf, which holds such options as the log file name, the log format, the maximum size of log files, and actions to