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The /etc/passwd file is a simple text file and is vulnerable to security breaches Anyone who gains access to the /etc/password file might be able to decipher or crack the encrypted passwords through a brute-force crack The shadow suite of applications implements a greater level of security These include versions of useradd, groupadd, and their corresponding update and delete programs Most other user configuration tools support shadow security measures With shadow security, passwords are no longer kept in the /etc/ password file Instead, passwords are kept in a separate file called /etc/shadow Access is restricted to the root user The following example shows the /etc/passwd entry for a user
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chris:x:501:501:Chris:/home/chris:/bin/bash
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A corresponding password file, called /etc/gshadow, is also maintained for groups that require passwords
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To change any particular field for a given user, you should use the user management tools provided, such as the passwd command, adduser, usermod, useradd, and chage, discussed in this chapter The passwd command lets you change the password only Other tools not only make entries in the /etc/passwd file, but also create the home directory for the user and install initialization files in the user s home directory These tools also let you control users access to their accounts You can set expiration dates for users or lock them out of their accounts Users locked out of their accounts will have a their password in the /etc/shadow file prefixed by the invalid string, !! Unlocking the account removes this prefix
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Each time a user logs in, two profile scripts are executed, a system profile script that is the same for every user, and a user login profile script that can be customized to each user s needs When the user logs out, a user logout script is run In addition, each time a shell is generated, including the login shell, a user shell script is run There are different kinds of scripts used for different shells The default shell commonly used is the BASH shell As an alternative, users can use different shells such as TCSH or the Z shell
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For the BASH shell, each user has his or her own BASH login profile script named bash_ profile in the user s home directory The system profile script is located in the /etc directory and named profile with no preceding period The BASH shell user shell script is called bashrc The bashrc file also runs the /etc/bashrc file to implement any global definitions
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28:
Managing Users
such as the PS1 and TERM variables The /etc/bashrc file also executes any specialized initialization file in the /etc/profiled directory, such as those used for KDE and GNOME The bash_profile file runs the bashrc file, and through it, the /etc/bashrc file, implementing global definitions As a superuser, you can edit any of these profile or shell scripts and put in any commands you want executed for each user when that user logs in For example, you may want to define a default path for commands, in case the user has not done so Or you may want to notify the user of recent system news or account changes
PART VII PART I PART I PART I PART I PART I PART I
/etc/skel
When you first add a user to the system, you must provide the user with skeleton versions of their login, shell, and logout initialization files For the BASH shell, these are the bash_ profile, bashrc, and bash_logout files The useradd command and other user management tools add these files automatically, copying any files in the directory /etc/skel to the user s new home directory The /etc/skel directory contains a skeleton initialization file for the bash_profile, bashrc, and bash_logout files or, if you are using the TCSH shell as your login shell, the login, tcshrc, and logout files The /etc/skel directory also contains default files and directories for your desktops These include a screenrc file for the X Window System, a kde directory for the KDE desktop, and a Desktop directory that contains default configuration files for the GNOME desktop As a superuser, you can configure the bash_profile or bashrc file in the /etc/skel directory any way you want Usually, basic system variable assignments are included that define pathnames for commands and command aliases The PATH and BASH_ENV variables are defined in bash_profile Once users have their own bash_profile or bashrc file, they can redefine variables or add new commands as they choose
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