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CHAPTER
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any networks now provide either IPv6 autoconfiguration or the DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) service, which automatically provides network configuration for all connected hosts Autoconfiguration can be either stateless, as in the case of IPv6, or stateful, as with DHCP Stateless IPv6 autoconfiguration requires no independent server or source to connect to a network It is a direct plug-and-play operation, where the hardware network interfaces and routers can directly determine the correct addresses DCHP is an older method that requires a separate server to manage and assign all addresses Should this server ever fail, hosts cannot connect With the DHCP protocol, an administrator uses a pool of IP addresses from which the administrator can assign an IP address to a host as needed The protocol can also be used to provide all necessary network connection information such as the gateway address for the network or the netmask Instead of having to configure each host separately, network configuration can be handled by a central DHCP server The length of time that an address can be used can be controlled by means of leases, making effective use of available addresses If your network is configuring your systems with DHCP, you will not have to configure it There are currently two versions of DHCP, one for the original IPv4 protocol and another, known as DHCPv6, for the IPv6 protocol The IPv6 protocol includes information for dynamic configuration that the IPv4 protocol lacks In this respect, the IPv4 protocol is much more dependent on DHCP than IPv6 is
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In an IPv6 network, the IPv6 protocol includes information that can directly configure a host With IPv4 you either had to manually configure each host or rely on a DHCP server to provide configuration information With IPv6, configuration information is integrated into the Internet protocol directly IPv6 address autoconfiguration is described in detail in RFC 2462 IPv6 autoconfiguration capabilities are known as stateless, meaning that it can directly configure a host without recourse to an external server Alternatively, DHCP, including DHCPv6, is stateful, where the host relies on an external DHCP server to provide configuration information Stateless autoconfiguration has the advantage of hosts not
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having to rely on a DHCP server to maintain connections to a network Networks can even become mobile, hooking into one subnet or another, automatically generating addresses as needed Hosts are no longer tied to a particular DHCP server
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To autoconfigure hosts on a local network, IPv6 makes use of the each network device s hardware MAC address This address is used to generate a temporary address, with which the host can be queried and configured The MAC address is used to create a link-local address, one with a link-local prefix, FE80::0, followed by an interface identifier The link-local prefix is used for physically connected hosts such as those on a small local network A uniqueness test is then performed on the generated address Using the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP), other hosts on the network are checked to see if another host is already using the generated link-local address If no other host is using the address, then the address is assigned for that local network At this point the host has only a local address valid within the local physical network Link-local addresses cannot be routed to a larger network
Generating the Full Address: Router Advertisements
Once the link-local address has been determined, the router for the network is queried for additional configuration information The information can be either stateful or stateless, or both For stateless configuration, information such as the network address is provided directly, whereas for stateful configuration, the host is referred to a DHCPv6 server where it can obtain configuration information The two can work together Often the stateless method is used for addresses, and the stateful DHCPv6 server is used to provide other configuration information such as DNS server addresses In the case of stateless addresses, the router provides the larger network address, such as the network s Internet address This address is then added to the local address, replacing the original link-local prefix, giving either a complete global Internet address or, in the case of private networks, site-local addresses Routers will routinely advertise this address information, though it can also be specifically requested The NDP is used to query the information Before the address is officially assigned, a duplicate address detection procedure checks to see if the address is already in use The process depends on the router s providing the appropriate addressing information in the form of router advertisements If there is no router, or there are no route advertisements, then a stateful method like DHCPv6 or manual configuration must be used to provide the addresses Figure 35-1 shows a network that is configured with stateless address autoconfiguration Each host first determines its interface identifier using its own MAC hardware address to create a temporary link-local address for each host using the FE08::0 prefix This allows initial communication with the network's router The router then uses its network prefix to create full Internet addresses, replacing the link-local prefix
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