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structure on top of the skeleton that will enable an animator to do the job without the complexities of the software getting in the way This chapter concentrates on creating controls that operate, or puppet, the skeleton Figure 12-1 shows a completed character control rig with custom attributes on the various control objects This type of rig is built using the concepts learned in 11 along with a few new tools that you ll learn about here The goal for the rig is that an animator will never have to pick a joint to pose the character Instead, the animator will use elegant and intuitive controls
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Methods of Posing a Skeleton
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There are two primary methods for posing and animating a skeleton: forward kinematics (FK) and inverse kinematics (IK) Each has its advantages and disadvantages and is used to control parts of the rig for which it is best suited In some cases, rigging the skeleton so that an animator can switch between the two methods is preferable This setup is discussed later in the chapter For now, let s discuss these two methods of control
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Forward kinematics allows you to animate a skeleton so that it behaves as a normal hierarchy That is, when a parent joint is rotated, all of its children will follow FK is useful for animating arcing movement, such as swinging or waving an arm or curling the fingers, as shown next Stop-motion puppets are animated through rotation inside an armature in a way that s similar to FK While animating with FK is pretty intuitive to anyone who has been doing basic animation in Maya, it does have some drawbacks for use in character animation The biggest problem with animating with FK is that you can t anchor the end of a joint chain at a specific location while the parent joints are moved
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FIGURE 12-1 A real-world production-ready control rig for the short film Worm
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For example, if you re animating a character s walk cycle, you want to be able to lock one of the feet to the floor while the body moves and the opposite foot moves forward This is difficult to accomplish with FK You would animate the pelvis to move the body forward, but since the feet are children of the pelvis, they will move forward with the body This means you have to rotate the leg backward at every frame, just to make the foot stay put To lock down this foot as you move the body, you must use inverse kinematics
Inverse Kinematics
With inverse kinematics, a joint s hierarchy is specified to form an IK chain Once the IK chain is created, two additional nodes are created The IK effector is parented to the joint at the end of the IK chain The IK handle is created and placed outside the joint hierarchy The IK handle acts as a goal position for the effector The IK solver then evaluates the position of the IK effector and makes the necessary calculations to rotate the joints in the chain so that the joint at the end of the chain will be in the same position as the end effector This way, the hierarchy is animated by moving the object at the end of the joint hierarchy instead of from the top down hence the name, inverse kinematics; it s the inverse of FK Figure 12-2 shows a joint chain with an IK system added Like FK, IK has its drawbacks For many areas on a character, IK can make the simplest movements difficult to control A character swinging his arm as he walks, for instance, can be difficult to animate with IK Instead of just grabbing the shoulder and rotating it back and forth as you would with FK, IK would require you to translate the IK handle back and forth Obtaining a nice arc can be a difficult task in this situation
FIGURE 12-2 A joint chain with an IK setup that can be used to control the skeleton from the hierarchy s end
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