Set Operators in VB.NET

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Set Operators
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There are four set operators: Distinct, Intersect, Union, and Except.
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Note The May 2006 CTP version of the LINQ Project doesn t provide support for Nullable elements in the Set operators. This will be implemented in the final version.
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Distinct
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This operator is similar to the DISTINCT keyword used in SQL; it eliminates duplicates from a sequence.
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<Extension> _ Public Shared Function Distinct(Of T)(ByVal source As IEnumerable(Of T)) _ As IEnumerable(Of T)
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When the code processes the query it enumerates the element of the sequence, storing into an IEnumerable(Of T) type each element that has not been stored previously. In Listing 146 the Distinct operator selects unique values from the sequence. The output will be 1, 2, 3.
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Listing 1-46. The Distinct Operator in Action
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Dim numbers As Integer() = New Integer() {1, 1, 2, 3, 3} ObjectDumper.Write(numbers.Distinct())
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Intersect
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This operator returns a sequence made by common elements of two different sequences.
<Extension> _ Public Shared Function Intersect(Of T)(ByVal first As IEnumerable(Of T), _ ByVal second As IEnumerable(Of T)) _
firstPress: LINQ to Objects
As IEnumerable(Of T)
The first sequence is enumerated and compared to the second one. Only the common element will be collected and inserted into the IEnumerable(Of T) return type. In Listing 1-47 the Intersect method compares two numeric sequences and returns the common elements: 1 and 3.
Listing 1-47. The Intersect Method Used to Retrieve Common Elements in Two Sequences
Dim numbers As Integer() = New Integer() {1, 1, 2, 3, 3} Dim numbers2 As Integer() = New Integer() {1, 3, 3, 4} ObjectDumper.Write(numbers.Intersect(numbers2))
Union
This operator returns a new sequence formed by uniting the two different sequences.
<Extension> _ Public Shared Function Union(Of T)(ByVal first As IEnumerable(Of T), _ ByVal second As IEnumerable(Of T)) _ As IEnumerable(Of T)
The first sequence is enumerated and distinct elements are stored into an IEnumerable(Of T) type. The second sequence is enumerated as well and the elements not stored previously are added to the IEnumerable(Of T) return type. In Listing 1-48 the Union operator returns an IEnumerable(Of Integer) type composed of distinct elements from the two numeric sequences: 1, 3, 2, and 4.
Listing 1-48. The Union Operator in Action
Dim numbers As Integer() = New Integer() {1, 1, 2, 3, 3} Dim numbers2 As Integer() = New Integer() {1, 3, 3, 4} ObjectDumper.Write(numbers.Union(numbers2))
Note The Union operator doesn t sort the numbers when it produces the IEnumerable(Of T) return type.
Except
This operator produces a new sequence composed of the elements of the first sequence not present in the second sequence.
firstPress: LINQ to Objects
<Extension> _ Public Shared Function Except(Of T)(ByVal first As IEnumerable(Of T), _ ByVal second As IEnumerable(Of T)) _ As IEnumerable(Of T)
When the code processes the query expression it starts to enumerate the first sequence, storing its distinct elements in an IEnumerable(Of T) type. Then it enumerates the second sequence and removes the common elements into the IEnumerable(Of T) type stored previously. Finally, it returns the processed IEnumerable(Of T) type to the caller. The output for the example shown in Listing 1-49 is 2, 4.
Listing 1-49. The Except Method in Action
Dim numbers As Integer() = New Integer() {1, 2, 3, 4} Dim numbers2 As Integer() = New Integer() {1, 1, 3, 3} ObjectDumper.Write(numbers.Except(numbers2))
Conversion Operators
There are seven conversion operators: OfType, Cast, ToSequence, ToArray, ToList, ToDictionary, and ToLookup.
OfType
This operator produces a new IEnumerable(Of T) type composed of only the element of the specified type.
<Extension> _ Public Shared Function OfType(Of T)(ByVal source As IEnumerable) As IEnumerable(Of T)
The operator enumerates the elements of the source sequence, searching for those whose type is equal to T. Only those elements will be inserted in the final IEnumerable(Of T) sequence that the OfType method returns. Listing 1-50 searches for the elements of Double type in the sequence. The result is 2.0.
Listing 1-50. The OfType Searches for the Specified Type T in the Sequence.
Dim sequence As Object() = New Object() {1, "Hello", 2.0} ObjectDumper.Write(sequence.OfType(Of Double)())
firstPress: LINQ to Objects
Cast
This operator casts the elements of the sequence to a given type.
<Extension> _ Public Shared Function Cast(Of T)(ByVal source As IEnumerable) As IEnumerable(Of T)
The operator enumerates the elements of the source sequence and casts its elements to the T type. Those new elements are collected into a new IEnumerable(Of T) type that will be returned. Listing 1-51 casts Object type to Double type. The output will be 1.0, 2.0, 3.0.
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