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A Brief History of Object-Oriented Programming
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Traditional structured programming languages have been around for a long time and, it should be noted, they still are In the early computer days, programmers followed a top-down approach to creating their programs This means that a program executed from the start of the code to the bottom of the code, with the odd deviation when the program reached out to run a stored piece of code called a function Functions were essentially small, one-task units of execution that a program could call multiple times and rely on to accomplish the same task each time The program shown in Figure 1-4 is written in C, and it demonstrates how a function can be separated from the main body of code The function, convert, is called from
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1: Introduction to C# NET and the NET Platform
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PART I
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Figure 1-3
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A traditional, structured approach to programming
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the main line of the program to perform its duty, and it then returns the result to the main body of the program Now consider this scenario you are developing a completely different application and you realize that you also need the capability of converting Fahrenheit temperatures to Celsius (and, if you are a Canadian born in the yuppie era, you need to do this all the time!) You now must spend some of your precious time either developing the code yourself or finding the code somewhere else Language developers realized that both of these approaches required a great investment of time and went about creating libraries of these functions If you had to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit or vice versa, you asked that the appropriate library be added to your program, and then you could call on the function s services without coding it into your program This was the beginning of reusable code In the 1980s, a group of people realized that there might be another way to approach this need to reuse code They had the foresight to recognize that not only was it prudent to store functions in libraries, but it might be worthwhile to store attributes as well This led to the development of object-oriented design and programming If you are interested in learning the complete history of this fascinating topic, go right to the source Grady Booch, Ivar Jacobson, and James Rumbaugh have authored several excellent books on the subject the one that comes to mind is Grady Booch s Object Oriented Analysis and Design, Second Edition (Addison-Wesley, 1994) These three individuals are the grandfathers of OOP and demonstrated so much vision with this approach to programming that every language written now follows these concepts
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Due to the influence of early OO languages (SmallTalk, Ada, Eiffel, C++, and Java), the developers of C# took a page from the Java language and decided that everything in C# is a class This means that every piece of code you write is found inside a class file Structured programmers often find the transition to OOP very difficult because the style of programming is completely different and you must now think in terms of classes and objects instead of a top-down design So, without further ado, it is time for us to explore these concepts and delve into the world of object-oriented programming
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Just What Is an Object
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In order to fully understand the concept of an object, allow us to paint a picture for you Imagine that you have been given the daunting task of designing an application that will build an automobile from scratch This particular application will be used by car manufacturers all over the world This means that your design must be so solid and flexible that manufacturers of the Oldsmobile can build a car and manufacturers of the Volkswagen Beetle can also build a car using your application Can you imagine coding this using a structured language You would have to build a large library of functions, and you might find yourself duplicating large portions of your work in order to achieve the required flexibility You might also find that you spend more time searching for functions and determining in which library they belong You could find yourself going gray before anything of substance is actually produced Let s step back from this picture and paint a new, object-oriented picture You have to be able to build an Olds as well as a Beetle Instead of focusing on the differences between these two cars, examine the similarities They both have wheels, steering mechanisms, seats, engines, windows, brakes, and so on Breaking it down even further, the wheel must be able to rotate, has to be attached to the vehicle, and must provide features that grip the road it doesn t matter whether that wheel will be on an Olds or a Beetle We can also determine that the wheel must have a size, a color, and an air capacity The nouns that describe the similarities between the two vehicles (and, in reality, the similarities of every car) are the objects that we will build into our application We can also see that these objects must be able to do things (such as rotate, grip, and attach), and these are the verbs, or functions, of our objects Finally, the objects have characteristics or attributes (such as size, color, and capacity) these are the properties of our object Imagine how powerful this is! Once we actually design and program this, anyone in the world can use our wheel It doesn t just have to be a car manufacturer The people that create bicycles may be just as interested in our wheel as the developers of jumbo jets might be All of these builders can use our design and build their own actual wheels Each wheel has its own individual size, color, and capacity The objects are, therefore, the physical creations from a design Each may look totally different from one another but, essentially, they all have the same characteristics and capabilities To summarize, an object combines data (or properties) with its functionality (or methods) An object is a physical creation based on a design We are repeating this to emphasize the design part A class file is the design of the object Just as a car manufacturer has a blueprint or a design in order to construct a wheel, so must our program have a blueprint that describes the properties and methods that make up an object We will look at how to create a class file later in this chapter
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