Characteristics of Reciprocating Pumps A distinguishing characteristic of in Software

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10 Characteristics of Reciprocating Pumps A distinguishing characteristic of
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the positive displacement pump is that the capacity neglecting slip is equal to the displacement Thus the capacity is directly proportional to the speed of the pump, and for a constant speed the capacity is constant If a variable quantity is desired, it is necessary to vary the speed of the pump, or to simply bypass some of the uid, which is wasteful of power The slip or leakage increases as the pressure on a given pump is increased It tends to become less in percentage value as the pump speed is increased The head or pressure which the positive displacement pump will develop is determined by the resistance against which the pump works, and is not xed by any property of the pump Its maximum or limiting value is determined by the power available to drive the pump and the strength of the various parts Obviously such a pump should be protected against excessive pressures by some form of relief valve The positive displacement pump is of especial value, compared with the centrifugal pump, for small capacities, and especially for very high heads
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POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS ROTARY TYPE
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11 Types of Rotary Pumps The principal types of rotary pumps are shown in
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Fig 1364 These are the lobe type, eccentric type, and gear type In each of them the uid is trapped within the spaces bounded by the casing and the vanes, teeth, or lobes, and is delivered to the discharge side Such pumps have no valves Since the leakage loss is kept within a reasonable value by nothing more than the small clearance between the various parts, such pumps deteriorate rapidly with wear Hence they should not be used for a liquid containing grit They are of especial value for such liquids as oils, whose physical properties produce less leakage loss than water and to provide better lubrication to such rubbing surfaces as are in contact The lobe type may be used for moderate rotative speeds It produces a continuous but nonuniform rate of discharge and hence requires air chambers Ef ciencies as high as 85 percent are claimed for it The eccentric type has blades which slide in and out and thus produce inertia forces due to their reciprocating actions, which limits the speed of such pumps The blades can never wear to a tight t because of the varying curvature and, furthermore, they produce considerable friction loss There is considerable slip around the ends of the blades and the rotor, which is hard to check satisfactorily The gear type is best suited to high rotative speeds, but is not quite so ef cient as the lobe type In addition to these three there is a twin-screw type, which consists of two parallel screws within a casing in which the thread of one ts into that of the other
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12 Characteristics of Rotary Pumps Rotary pumps, being positive displace-
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ment pumps, are very similar to reciprocating pumps in most respects The principal advantage is the substitution of rotation for reciprocation; this permits higher speeds, with a reduction in the size of the pump for the same capacity Rotary pumps tend to be inef cient, however, especially with wear, which permits the leakage loss to become excessive
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CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
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13 Classi cations Centrifugal pumps may be divided into turbine pumps and
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volute pumps In the former the impeller is surrounded by diffusion vanes which are so formed as to reduce the velocity of the water and ef ciently convert the kinetic energy into pressure In the latter the impeller is merely surrounded by a
FIGURE 1364 Rotary pumps (a) Lobe type (b) Eccentric type (c) Gear-wheel pump
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spiral casing, called the volute, which is also so designed as to convert ef ciently the kinetic energy into pressure (see Figs 1365 and 1366) They may also be classi ed as single-stage and multistage, according to whether only one impeller is used, or whether there are more than one in series In the latter case each stage adds to the pressure produced by the preceding stage, so that the total pressure is equal to that developed by one impeller alone multiplied by the number of stages (see Fig 1367) If the impeller takes water from one side only, the pump is called a singlesuction pump If it takes water from both sides, it is a double-suction pump A single-suction impeller produces an end thrust which must be provided for, while a double-suction impeller is in hydraulic balance Sometimes deep-well pumps are the axial- ow type, in which case the impellers become very similar in appearance to screw propellers as used for ships They are, in fact, a form of propeller pump Propeller pumps are also used in large sizes for pumping large quantities of water against relatively low heads
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