reportviewer barcode font Fan Pressures Because of their small values, fan pressures are usually stated in Software

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36 Fan Pressures Because of their small values, fan pressures are usually stated
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in terms of inches (mm) of water or ounces per square inch (kPa) One inch (254 mm) of water is equivalent to 0577 oz / in2 or 00362 lb / in2 (025 kPa) or 693 ft (211 m) of air whose density is 00752 lb / ft3 (12 kg / m3) Three pressures are considered: static, velocity, and impact, which is the sum of the rst two The last is usually used for computing fan ef ciency, but the static pressure may also be used Hence it is necessary to specify which pressure is used If the velocity head of a gas is represented by hv in (mm) of water, the velocity density in lb / ft3 in feet per minute (m / min) is V (1100 / w) hv, where w (kg / m3)
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37 Air Horsepower The power in the air delivered by the fan is 52Qh / 33,000, ft3 / min (m3 / min), and h in (mm) of water It may be either static where Q pressure or impact pressure 38 Fan Ef ciency The overall ef ciency of a centrifugal fan is e
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ahp / bhp, where ahp is the air horsepower and bhp the brake horsepower or the power necessary to run the fan (e akW / bkW) Its value is usually about 60 to 70 percent
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39 Fan Characteristics The characteristics of centrifugal fans are identical with
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those of the centrifugal pump but instead of one curve for h there are often two, the static-pressure and the impact-pressure curves, and likewise there are two ef ciency curves to correspond The various curves may be plotted with Q as a base or, since the static head is often of greater interest and more readily measured, all values may be plotted against it
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40 Steam-Jet Blowers and Vacuum Pumps For many purposes the steam-
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jet compressor or vacuum pump (Fig 1378) is very useful It is simple and compact, but is inef cient unless exhaust steam is used for it A form of this is widely used for air pumps on steam condensers They use from 019 to 037 lb of steam per 1000 ft3 (009 to 017 kg per 283 m3) of air
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
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FIGURE 1378 (a) Exhauster, (b) Steam-jet air compressor
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FUELS AND COMBUSTION
41 Fuels In a commercial sense, a fuel is any material of suitable cost that will
combine, in part, with the oxygen of the air to liberate heat Fuels may be classi ed as solid, liquid, and gaseous Natural solid fuels are coal, lignite, peat, and wood; prepared solid fuels include coke, pulverized coal, and charcoal; waste solid fuels include sawmill refuse and bagasse (crushed sugar cane)
42 Coal Coal, the most important and most abundant solid fuel, is of vegetable
origin and exists in a variety of forms having different chemical and physical characteristics It contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash Coal Analysis Two kinds of analyses are commonly used to ascertain the composition of coal: the ultimate analysis and the proximate analysis Ultimate Analysis The chemical analysis of a fuel, giving the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash, is known as the ultimate analysis For the standard method of making these determinations, see ASME Test Code for Solid Fuels Proximate Analysis This analysis determines the percentages by weight of moisture, volatile matter, xed carbon, and ash in the fuel Usually a statement of the sulfur content and the calori c value of the fuel is included in the commercial proximate analysis Moisture is considered to be the loss in weight of a sample (1 g) of coal when dried at a temperature of 104 to 110 C for 1 h Combustible is arbitrarily de ned as that portion of the coal remaining after subtraction of ash and
CHAPTER THIRTEEN
moisture Volatile matter is the total combustible minus the xed carbon; it includes the carbon which is combined with hydrogen, together with free oxygen, nitrogen, and other gas-forming constituents of the dry fuel which are driven off by the heat Fixed carbon, or uncombined carbon, is the combustible remaining after the volatile matter has been driven off It is determined by subtracting from the weight of the original sample the weight of the moisture, ash, and volatile matter Ash is the incombustible residue from the complete burning of the coal For the standard method of making these determinations, see ASME Test Code for Solid Fuels
43 Heating Value The calori c or hearing value of a fuel is the amount of heat recovered when the products of complete combustion of unit quantity of the fuel are cooled to the initial temperature of the air and fuel The heating values of solid and liquid fuels are expressed on the weight basis in Btu per pound (kJ / kg) For gaseous fuels, the heating values are expressed in Btu per cubic foot (kJ / m3) of the gas; common standard conditions for the measurement of the gas volume are a temperature of 60 F (156 C), a total pressure of 30 in Hg (762 cm Hg), and saturation of the gas with water vapor When a fuel contains hydrogen, there are a number of possible heating values depending upon the fractional part of water vapor formed during combustion that condenses when the products of combustion are cooled to the initial temperature If none of the water vapor condenses, the resultant heating value is the lower heating value; if all the water vapor condenses, the heating value is the higher heating value The numerical difference between the higher and lower heating value of any hydrogen-containing fuel is the product of the weight of water vapor formed from the complete combustion of unit quantity of the fuel and the latent heat of condensation of that water vapor The heating value of fuels may be determined by calorimeter tests or may be estimated, with a fair degree of accuracy, from a knowledge of their chemical and physical properties The approximate higher heating value (HHV) of coal, in Btu per pound (kJ / kg), may be calculated from the ultimate analysis by a formula of the Dulong type;
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