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icals that assist in the aggregation of colloidal particles (0001 to 10 m) is crucial to the process operation
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6 Bioxidation Simple sedimentation removes a major fraction of the suspended solids but none of the dissolved contaminants Microorganisms can utilize dissolved organic material as nutrients for their growth and metabolism The process, shown mechanistically in Fig 1517, could be termed ameless oxidation in the liquid state because bacteria convert carbon to carbon dioxide via metabolic pathways, therein consuming oxygen and yielding energy There are two different biological oxidation, or bioxidation, processes, with the distinction between them based on microbial mobility:
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1 Suspended the microorganisms are suspended in the liquid; the system operates as a continuous biological reactor, called an activated sludge plant or oxidation pond 2 Fixed bed the microorganisms are embedded in a gelatinous mass attached to a solid support medium This is referred to as a trickling lter or bioxidation tower Three types of reactions take place in the bioxidation process: (1) assimilative respiration, (2) synthesis of cells, and (3) endogenous respiration Assimilative respiration provides the necessary energy for the life processes of cells and can be represented by the following equation: CxHyOz (x
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Besides the energy released, the cells derive energy for the oxidation process to use in building new cells:
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FIGURE 1517 Schematic for bioxidation of dissolved organic matter
CHAPTER FIFTEEN
n(CxHyOz)
nNH3
4 y
5)O2 (C5H7NO2)n n(x 5)CO2
2n(y
4)H2O
(1562)
This process is termed endogenous respiration; it is actually autoxidation or self-destruction of cellular material and can be represented by (C5H7NO2)n 5nO2 5nCO2 2nH2O nNH3 energy (1563)
The formula representative of bacterial cells is C5H7NO2 The need for nitrogen in order to grow cells is obvious by its inclusion in the formula Activated Sludge System The conventional activated sludge process is analogous to a continuous biological fermentor because nutrients in the untreated wastewater are continually added, oxygen is supplied through an aeration system, and cells are produced and removed in the ef uent stream (Fig 1518) The product is a combination of treated wastewater and suspended cells, which are removed by sedimentation and partially recycled to the reactor The treated ef uent over ows to discharge or reuse systems The activated sludge process provides a smooth-running, highly ef cient operation, with excellent removal of organic matter; BOD removals of 90 percent are easily achieved Tapered Aeration As the organic contaminants are consumed by the bacteria in a long reactor, the F / M ratio and oxygen demand decrease with length The process modi cation from conventional activated sludge is a variation of the air ow rate according to oxygen needs achieved by putting in decreasing numbers of diffuser tubes with increasing distance from the inlet The obvious advantage is lower power consumption than uniform (and excess) aeration would require
FIGURE 1518 Simpli ed owsheet for activated sludge plant
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Step Aeration Another way to balance air requirements is to add the wastewater at different points along the aeration tank This modi cation keeps the F / M ratio constant as a function of tank length and leads to uniform oxygen demand by the microorganisms With these changes, BOD loading may be increased and detention time and consumption rate may be lowered Contact Stabilization The adsorptive properties of activated sludge particles are advantageous when a large part of the BOD is present in suspended form Sludge that has been conditioned by reaeration is brought into short (15 to 30 min) but unaerated contact with the wastewater Extended Aeration Extended aeration systems operate essentially without any sludge production because they include neither a primary sedimentation tank nor any allowance for continuous sludge withdrawal from the bioxidation system Aeration tanks usually are sized to provide 24- to 30-h retention with air added mechanically or by submerged diffusers A nal settling basin where the detention is approximately 4 h removes most solids for total recycle although normally provision is made for intermittent sludge withdrawal to holding tanks for later offsite disposal In general, the process functions best at BOD loadings of less than 15 lb (68 kg) per day per 1000 ft3 (283 m3) of aeration tank and less than 01 lb BOD / lb (605 kg BOD / kg) of cells Oxygen Demand and Supply Generally, 2 mg / L of dissolved oxygen should be maintained at all points of the activated sludge basin to keep the cells working at their maximum rate Hence the mixed liquor in the reactor is continuously aerated by either a diffused air system or by mechanical surface aerators The aeration process serves three functions: (1) it mixes the sludge and the sewage, (2) it keeps the sludge in suspension, and (3) it supplies the oxygen needed for bioxidation Lagoons The term lagoon or stabilization pond generally is applied to all bodies of water arti cially created with the intention of retaining sewage or organically contaminated wastewaters until the wastes are rendered stable or unobjectionable through biological decomposition and the waters are suitable for disposition, either by discharge into receiving waters or by way of ground seepage and evaporation Lagooning is a common and cheap means of eliminating dissolved or suspended organics The feed enters at one end of the lagoon Sedimentation occurs rst, with settable solids being deposited near the entrance Trickling Filters Trickling, or biological, lter is the name given to the process whereby microorganisms attached to stones (or plastic media) strip wastewater of its organic components as it ows (trickles) down through a packed tower The attached growths adsorb, absorb, and oxidize suspended and colloidal matter in the wastewater Crushed stone [11 2 to 4 in (38 to 102 cm)] normally is used as the packing medium for the bed, although recently plastic packing has found substantial application The wastewater is applied to the lter through a central rotating distributor, which intermittently applies water to the various segments of the bed Design Equations The rate of removal of BOD in a lter is a function of the BOD concentration of the wastewater and the adsorptive capacity of the biological growth The rate of stabilization controls the adsorption capacity of the biological growth
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