FIGURE 1646 Three-wire generator connections in Software

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FIGURE 1646 Three-wire generator connections
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CHAPTER SIXTEEN
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TABLE 168 Wet Cells
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Name Chromic acid Daniell Gravity Edison-Lalande Leclanche
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Electrolyte H2SO4 or NaCl H2SO4 or ZnSO4 ZnSO4 or H2SO4 NaOH NH4Cl
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Positive Carbon Copper Copper CuO Cu Carbon
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Negative Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc Zinc
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Depolarizer CrO2 CuSO4 CuSO4 CuO MnO2
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TABLE 169 Wet Cells
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Name Chromic acid Daniell Gravity Edison-Lalande Leclanche
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Emf, volts 200 107 to 114 100 075 150
Resistance, ohms 5 03 01 002 1 to to to to to 4 30 6 01 5
End result Cr2(SO4)3 3ZnSO4 Cu ZnSO4 Cu ZnSO4 Cu Na2ZnO2 Mn2O3 2NH3 ZnCl2
useless when completely dried out In the usual form, a cylindrical container of zinc is connected to the negative terminal, and a central rod of carbon to the positive Surrounding the carbon rod is a mixture of carbon and manganese oxide used as a depolarizer Between this and the inside of the zinc cylinder is the absorbent material, saturated with ammonium chloride and the zinc chloride which is formed during discharge The open-circuit voltage, 15 V, is reduced to about 1 V on closed circuit, principally by polarization Even a good dry cell, when unused, becomes worthless, owing to drying out and local action, after about a year The most common size of large cell has a 21 2-in (64-cm) diameter and a 6-in (15-cm) length On short-circuit tests such a cell should give about 20 A or more The cylindrical 21 4 in (33 57 cm); two or three unit cell most used in ashlights is 15 16 such cells are generally used in series The data in Table 1610 show typical drycell capacities For an end voltage of 1 V, the values were about two-thirds of the above For 06-V end voltage, they were about 50 percent greater If the service is intermittent, the capacity may be increased as much as two or three times, but if the test extends over many days, the total capacity is decreased by local action
TABLE 1610 Capacity of Dry Cells [6 in (15 cm)]
(End voltage, 08 volt) Amp 2 4 1 8 1 16 1 32
Hr 16 51 143 414 1078
Amp-hr 8 12 18 26 34
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
62 Storage Cells These are cells which are reversible as to their electrochemical action That is, charging a discharged cell with electric current will bring it back to its original chemical conditions and thus make it available for another discharge In order that the plates may keep their original form, it is necessary that the active material should not be soluble in the electrolyte Such cells are also called secondary cells or accumulators, as distinguished from primary cells Two types of storage cells are in general use: the lead cell and the alkaline cell 63 The Lead Cell The electrodes of this cell consist of lead grids or frames
which carry the active material When the battery is completely charged, the active material on the positive plate is principally lead peroxide (PbO2), and on the negative plate spongy metallic lead During discharge both materials are converted into lead sulfate (PbSO4) The positive plate is reddish brown and the negative plate is grayish in color There is always one more negative than positive plate, because the negative is more robust and withstands better the effect of the reactions on one side only The electrolyte is chemically pure sulfuric acid and water For stationary batteries, the speci c gravity varies from 1150 to 1160 on discharge and rises to 1200 or 1215 when fully charged In portable and vehicle batteries, the speci c gravity may be 1300 when charged The smaller cells are usually carried in hard rubber or glass jars, sealed at the top except for small ventilating holes Large cells have lead-lined wooden tanks During the life of the cell, the active material slowly disintegrates and falls from the plates and thus eventually terminates the usefulness of the cell This sediment collects in the lower part of the container, so that it is necessary to support the plate a considerable distance from the bottom to prevent the sediment from coming in contact with, and short-circuiting, the plates Thin separators of wood, plastic, or rubber are generally used between the plates There are, in general, two methods of applying the active material to the plate For the pasted plate, the lead oxide is made into a paste and forced into the interstices of a suitable grid of pure lead which forms the plate Such plates are assembled and placed in sulfuric acid A forming current is then used to convert the positive plate into lead peroxide and the negative plate into spongy lead In the formed or Plante plate, the active material is formed from pure lead, sometimes from the supporting frame itself, by chemical means The Plante type is usually heavier, stronger, and more durable The pasted type is generally used for portable and vehicle batteries
64 Operation of Lead Storage Cell During the charge, the emf rises from about 22 to 26 V, though this latter gure may range in extreme cases from 24 to 28 The discharge starts at about 2 V and is usually carried to 18 V or, with heavy current, as low as 17 V The state of charge or discharge can be determined by the voltage only when normal current has been passing through the battery for a period of several minutes Nothing concerning the condition of the cell is shown by the open-circuit voltage The state of charge can be determined accurately by a hydrometer reading, and the completion of charging is indicated by the violent emission of gas, due to decomposition of the water The capacity rating of a cell is usually based on a discharge continued during a certain number of hours For stationary batteries, this is usually 8 h, but for vehicle batteries it may be 3 or even as low as 2 h A battery is not injured by a wide variation of discharge rates When discharged (or charged) at a high rate, its ampere-hour capacity for the discharge in question is greatly decreased For a 5-h
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