rdlc barcode font The dry-bulb temperature: the temperature of the air-water vapor mixture as in Software

Generating PDF-417 2d barcode in Software The dry-bulb temperature: the temperature of the air-water vapor mixture as

The dry-bulb temperature: the temperature of the air-water vapor mixture as
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measured by a thermometer exposed to the mixture The wet-bulb temprature: the temperature indicated by a thermometer covered with a wick-like material saturated with liquid after the arrangement has been allowed to reach evaporation equilibrium with the mixture (Fig 1955) The dew point of the mixture: the temperature at which vapor starts to condense when the mixture is cooled at constant pressure The relative humidity (assuming vapor behaves like an ideal gas) is de ned as the ratio of the actual mass of vapor to the mass of vapor required to produce saturated mixture at the same temperature: mv msat pv pg
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where pv is the actual partial pressure of the vapor and pg is the saturated pressure of the vapor at the temperature of the mixture The speci c humidity is (assuming also ideal-gas behavior):
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Vapor diffusion Dry bulb Wet bulb
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FIGURE 1955 Measurement of dry- and wet-bulb temperature
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CHAPTER NINETEEN
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pv pa
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where pa is the partial pressure of the air i from the above equations pv is calculated as2 To determine pv where pgw p tDB tWB K pgw (p pgw) (tDB K tWB tWB)
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saturated pressure corresponding to wet-bulb temperature total pressure of the mixture dry-bulb temperature, C wet-bulb temperature, C 15378 C
Gravimetric Method The most fundamental method for measuring humidity is a gravimetric procedure A sample of the air-water-vapor mixture is exposed to suitable chemicals until the water is absorbed The chemicals are then weighed to determine the amount of vapor absorbed Uncertainties as low as 01 percent can be obtained with this method Industrial Moisture Measurement Techniques Industrial methods for measuring moisture are based on the variation of some physical property of the material with moisture content Many different properties can be used, and, therefore the range of available techniques is large Electrical Method Microwaves at wavelengths between 1 mm and 1 m are absorbed to a much greater extent by water than most other materials Measuring the amount of absorption of microwave energy beamed through the material is the most common technique for measuring moisture content Optical Methods The refractometer is a well-established instrument that is used for measuring the water content of mixture It measures the refractive index of the liquid, which changes according to the moisture content Moisture-related energy absorption of near-infra-red light can be used for measuring the moisture content of solids, liquids, and gases Ultrasonic Methods The presence of water changes the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves through liquids The moisture content of liquids can therefore be determined by measuring the transmission speed of ultrasound
5 Viscosity Measurement Viscosity measurement is important in many pro-
cess industries Most instruments for measuring viscosity work on one of two physical principles: viscous friction exerted on a rotating body; rate of ow of the liquid through a tube Rotating Concentric-Cylinder Viscosimeter The rotating concentric cylinders apparatus is shown on Fig 1956 The inner cylinder is stationary and attached to an appropriate torque-measuring device, while the outer cylinder is driven at a constant
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Torque measurement, T
r2 r1
FIGURE 1956 Rotating concentric-cylinder apparatus
angular velocity If the annular space b is suf ciently small in comparison with the radius of the inner cylinder, then the rotating-cylinder arrangement approximates the parallel- plate situation, and the velocity pro le in the gap space may be assumed to be linear Then du dy where r2 b r1 (191) (192)
du and b dy
Now if the torque is measured, the uid shear stress is expressed by T/2 r2 L 1 (193)
where L is the length of the cylinder (Fig 1956) Combining Eqs (191) (193) T b/2 The torque on the bottom disk is: Tb 2a
4 r1
r 2 r2 L 1
(194)
(195)
where a is the gap spacing Combining the last two relations T
2 r1
r2 1 2a
2L r2 b
(196)
Once the torque and angular velocity are measured, then for the apparatus of speci ed dimensions value of viscocity is calculated from the last equation
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