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ENGINEERING ECONOMY, PATENTS, AND COPYRIGHTS
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ENGINEERING ECONOMY*
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Engineering economy is a study of the time value of money in an engineering environment Thus the engineer might study from an economic standpoint the investment differences of different types of energy supplies, the relative cost of two different types of heat insulation, or the relative costs of two highway materials In any engineering economic study, the following factors will enter: (1) the rst cost of each alternative way of accomplishing a given task or reaching an end result, (2) the cost of borrowed money, (3) the time required to recover the investment, (4) operating and maintenance costs, if any, of each alternative, and (5) any other relative costs associated with the project or task being considered Since it always comes down to money, engineering economy is nding much wider application today than ever before And with the ready availability of computers of all sizes to do the numbers crunching, almost every small and mediumsized project is subjected to a rigorous economic analysis before nal approval to move ahead For this reason, every engineer must feel comfortable with the fundamentals of engineering economics And, of course, every major engineering project is given a searching economic study all the more reason why the engineer must know the fundamentals of the subject They are presented in this section of this handbook In somewhat different terms, engineering economics is the search for and recognition of alternatives which are then compared and evaluated in order to come up with the most practical design and creation The primary objective of this chapter is to provide the principles, concepts, techniques, and methods by which alternatives within a project can be compared and evaluated for the best monetary return If economic criteria are not considered properly when pro t is the ultimate objective, the result is bad engineering Many technologically brilliant projects have been destroyed as a result of unsound economic analysis
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BASIC CONCEPTS
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1 Objectives of Economic Analysis The primary objective of any economic
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analysis is to identify and evaluate the probable economic outcome of a proposed project so that available funds assigned to it may be used to optimum advantage
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* This section is drawn from Essentials of Engineering Economics, by E Kasner Copyright 1979 Used by permission of McGraw-Hill, Inc All rights reserved Updated 2003 by the editors A project is the temporary bringing together of human and nonhuman resources in order to achieve a speci ed engineering objective
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Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use
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CHAPTER TWENTY
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The analysis is always made from the viewpoint of the owner of the project and usually involves a comparison of alternatives on a monetary basis It should be recognized that an action always involves at least two possible courses: doing it or not doing it If the analysis is to yield results, the criteria by which alternatives are evaluated should have the following objectives: 1 2 3 4 5 Pro t maximization Cost minimization Maximization of social bene t Minimization of risk of loss Maximization of safety, quality, and public image
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The preceding list is by no means complete This chapter will deal primarily with the rst three; however, when applicable, the others will not be neglected
2 Procedure for Economic Analysis An economic analysis revolves around three processes: preparation, analysis, and evaluation The process of preparation can be broken down into three steps: understanding the project, de ning the objective, and collecting data Similarly, analysis involves analysis of data, interpretation of results, and formulation of alternative solutions Finally, there are two steps to evaluation: evaluation of the alternatives and identi cation of the best alternative(s) Analysis and evaluation can be handled by computer In fact, nearly all mediumand large-size rms in the United States have this type of capability, yielding quick feedback for decision making Decision making can be considered to be the fourth process involved in economic analysis The eight steps that make up preparation, analysis, and evaluation will now be brie y discussed
1 Understanding the project: One cannot and should not attempt to perform an economic analysis without clearly understanding the project This is often a substantial difference between what one thinks the project is and what the project really is 2 De ning the objectives: Failure to clarify the objectives of a project will often create dissatisfaction The objectives must be clearly stated and compatible with each other Some examples are Meet or exceed a speci ed minimum rate of return on an investment Return the investment (break even) within a speci ed time period Obtain a speci c share of a market The rm s objectives and criteria must be speci ed and de ned quantitatively That is, for example, if return of the investment within a speci ed time period is sought, the piece of equipment or operation being investigated should pay for itself within the speci ed time period, based on the potential savings or pro ts realized through its use 3 Collecting data: This begins with a complete review of published literature, if available, or of historical data in the rm s les Often, the wheel gets reinvented only because someone did not bother to search out existing information If not otherwise available, data can be obtained through private sources or roughly estimated through assumptions
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