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4 Analysis of data: This is the process of converting developed data into something meaningful and useful The use of a computer is highly bene cial Often the computer can generate maximum amounts of information at a minimum cost 5 Interpretation of results: Interpretation of the results usually occurs upon completion of the analysis The results must be well organized, stored properly, and then carefully adapted and utilized in the evaluation phase 6 Formulation of alternative solutions: Different avenues leading to the same nal objective are to be investigated and proposed to management as alternative methods Hence, in the case of a new product, for example, different methods of manufacturing would be proposed or different levels of automation would be suggested; then their effect on nal project pro tability would be examined 7 Evaluation of alternatives: In evaluating the alternatives, it is important to use uniform criteria for all, not different ones for each alternative If the returnon-investment concept is to be used on one alternative, then each alternative is to be evaluated by the return-on-investment concept Furthermore, the method of calculation of the return on investment (ROI) must be uniform as well 8 Identi cation of the best alternative(s): In most rms, this task is performed by top management; accordingly, the analyst must narrow the choice down to the two or three best possibilities Top management can then identify the one that comes closest to meeting the objectives As soon as the analysis, evaluation, selection, and approval of the best alternative have been completed, the implementation process begins The engineer or technologist will design, procure, and then install the equipment or assets called for in the project He or she will often be present during the start-up of the operation and make revisions if necessary
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3 Capital Expenditure Policies Wear and tear of productive facilities neces-
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sitates their eventual replacement Industrial and consumer demands for more goods and services necessitate an increase in supply and hence an increase in productive facilities Firms respond to these pressures through capital expenditures by investing new plants, equipment, and products Often, capital spending can be minimized by sacri cing some output capabilities or through productivity improvement or cost reduction opportunities Basically, capital expenditures can be classi ed into ve general groups: 1 2 3 4 5 Maintenance of productive facilities Optimization of existing productive capacity Mechanization or automation of existing facilities Expansion of product lines or productive capacity Necessities due to governmental regulations
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For whichever purpose the expenditure is made, except in the case of number 5, the nal criterion is the pro t or savings to be realized through the modi cation
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4 Basic Concepts and Assumptions In order to make an economic evaluation of a project, certain basic information must be established More detailed techniques will be considered later
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CHAPTER TWENTY
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Revenue R refers to any increase in the owner s equity resulting from sales or services of business Gross pro t G (also referred to as gross income) is the yearly earning from a venture throughout its operating life It is equal to revenue minus raw materials cost, operating expenses including overhead, maintenance, labor, and social security and unemployment taxes It does not include deductions for depreciation and income tax It can be expressed as G R C, where C is the various costs listed above Breakeven is a situation at which gross pro t G is equal to zero Stated differently, breakeven occurs where revenue R from sales or services just equals the costs C associated with doing business, the ones mentioned in the explanation of gross pro t Hence, G R C 0, or R C Fixed capital investment I consists of the investment in facilities and equipment Working capital Iw is money tied up in raw materials, intermediate- and nishedgoods inventories, and accounts receivable, as well as cash needed to operate a given project Income tax rate t is a government tool for controlling in ation A high rate decreases the supply of money available for business investment and spending The federal income tax rate can be taken at 48 percent, while the state income tax rate can be taken at an average of 5 percent Depreciation d consists of a xed annual charge on the facility or equipment investment which will result in recovery of the initial investment at the end of the useful life of the item If the actual life of the facility or equipment is known, an exact rate of depreciation can be established where the sum of the rates will just equal the investment Interest i is the rental charge for the use of borrowed money It is another in ation controller High interest rates discourage borrowing, making new investments less desirable Net pro t P is equal to gross pro t minus depreciation, interest, and income tax It can be expressed as P where I Iw G i d t G i(I Iw) t(G dI) (201)
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capital investment in facilities or equipment ( xed capital) working capital gross pro t interest rate depreciation rate income tax rate (federal and state)
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Rate of return on investment (ROI) is the annual rate of return on the original investment and can be expressed as ROI net profit total investment P I Iw (202)
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This ratio, often multiplied by 100 to yield a percentage, is the simplest and perhaps the most widely used index for measuring the attractiveness of a venture
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