PART VIII: PCAT PRACTICE TEST in VS .NET

Create Data Matrix 2d barcode in VS .NET PART VIII: PCAT PRACTICE TEST

PART VIII: PCAT PRACTICE TEST
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PART VIII: PCAT PRACTICE TEST
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35 Answer: A The question is essentially asking about what substances are normally digested in the stomach The stomach produces the enzyme pepsin, which is activated by the low pH (high acidity) of the stomach Pepsin is used to digest proteins If stomach pH were increased, pepsin would not be activated and protein digestion in the stomach would not happen properly 36 Answer: C The diploid number for humans is 46 and the haploid number is 23 When cells are dividing, each chromosome is present in duplicate copy These chromosomes are composed of two chromatids each when they are replicated 37 Answer: B Host cells tend to be killed as newly formed viruses try to exit the cell Lysis is one means a virus can use to leave the cell This ruptures the cell membrane, which ultimately kills the host cell 38 Answer: C RNA and DNA differ in several ways RNA exists as a single strand that is copied from DNA in the nucleus during the process of transcription The nucleotides that are used to make RNA are cytosine, guanine, adenine, and uracil The sugar that is used in RNA nucleotides is ribose (as compared with deoxyribose in DNA) 39 Answer: A The alveoli are the site of gas exchange, which is where CO2 will be picked up Moving up from the alveoli will lead to the bronchioles, the bronchi, the trachea, the pharynx, and the larynx 40 Answer: A Mutations are changes to the DNA While it does not catch all mistakes, DNA polymerase does catch many errors and allows for their correction during a proofreading process RNA polymerase does not have proofreading or correcting abilities; nor do tRNAs correct errors in the process of translation 41 Answer: C The question indicates that breast cancer can be associated with the BRCA1 allele However, not all cases of breast cancer are associated with this allele, and some individuals that have the allele do not develop cancer The only reasonable explanation in this case is that something other than a genetic factor must be involved Environmental in uences, in addition to certain alleles, are known to in uence the development of certain phenotypes in some cases 42 Answer: D If a person has no incoming uids, we would expect that urine volume would decrease in an attempt to retain the uids already present in the body The signal to increase water reabsorption in the nephrons comes from antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone
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Since the body is trying to conserve the uids it has and there are no incoming uids, the blood volume should not increase 43 Answer: C The parents in this case are a carrier father and a normal (noncarrier) mother This is not a sex-linked trait, so we can indicate the genotype of the father as Aa and the mother as AA If you work out the Punnett square, 50% will be carriers (Aa) and 50% will be normal (AA) None of the children will have the disease 44 Answer: B The question indicates that Duchene muscular dystrophy is a sex-linked allele that affects males more than females However, the question indicates that the disorder does occur in females although it is more rare than in males This indicates that the allele is on the X chromosome Since a male only has one X chromosome that he inherited from his mother, he will express whatever allele is on that X chromosome Therefore males only need to inherit the alleles from their mother to be affected For a female to have this disease, she must receive it on both X chromosomes (from both parents) It would be more likely for a male to inherit this from one parent (his mother) than for a female to inherit the allele from both parents 45 Answer: A ATP is produced during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by PSII During the Calvin cycle carbon dioxide is xed by combining with RuBP, which is regenerated by the cycle NADPH donates electrons causing it to be oxidized to NADP+ 46 Answer: D A sperm cell would be the result of cells that had completed meiosis II The question indicates that the number of chromosomes in the haploid sperm cell would be 12 The original parent cell that started meiosis would be diploid, or twice that of the haploid number In this question, the diploid number of the starting cell would be 24 47 Answer: D This question relies on an understanding of the tness concept Fitness is relative to the speci c population Fit individuals carry alleles that make them more likely to reproduce and pass those alleles to the next generation Therefore, those that reproduce the most in a certain population would be considered the most t under the conditions of that population 48 Answer: C The two equations of Hardy-Weinberg are p + q = 1 and p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 where p = the frequency of the dominant allele and q = the frequency of the recessive allele The question says that the homozygous recessive genotype is 81% of the population This means that q2 = 081 Now solve for q and p If q2 = 081 then q = 09 and p = 01 The question asks for the frequency of heterozygous individuals, which is 2pq or 2(09)(01) = 018
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