PART IV: REVIEWING PCAT BIOLOGY in .NET

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PART IV: REVIEWING PCAT BIOLOGY
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Once a cell has differentiated and committed to a set of genes that it needs to express, genes within this set can be regulated on a minute-to-minute basis There are a number of ways to regulate the process of transcription and translation These methods can completely prevent gene expression If gene expression does occur, there are methods to control the rate of the process, in turn in uencing the amount of protein that is produced Table 78 summarizes the major mechanisms for the control of gene expression
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Table 78:
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Mechanisms for Regulating Gene Expression Mechanisms used
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Stage at which regulation occurs Transcriptional regulation
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Coiling of chromosomes to physically prevent
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or allow the access of transcription factors and RNA polymerase to the promoter regions of DNA
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Posttranscriptional regulation
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mRNA splicing Control over the rate at which mRNA leaves
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the nucleus via nuclear pores
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Translational regulation
Lifespan of mRNA, which is in uenced by the
length of the poly-A tail added during RNA modi cation in the nucleus
Posttranslational regulation
Degradation of protein immediately following
synthesis
Failure to properly modify the protein,
rendering it useless
PART V GENETICS BASIC MENDELIAN CONCEPTS
The basic principles of genetics were proposed by Gregor Mendel in the 1860s His work with traits in pea plants led him to propose several theories of inheritance Mendel did all his work and postulated his theories at a time when the genetic material had not even been discovered, so the fact that his theories hold true today could be considered quite a stroke of luck Several pieces of terminology are essential in order to discuss genetics The exact genetic makeup of an individual for a speci c trait is referred to as the genotype, while the physical manifestation of the genetic makeup is referred to as a phenotype for a speci c trait A gene has information to produce a single protein or enzyme: however, genes can exist in different forms termed alleles In some cases, mutations can cause the production of alleles that produce faulty versions of the enzymes needed for metabolism, leading to a class of genetic disorders known as inborn errors of metabolism
Mendel s law of segregation
There are several important ideas found in Mendel s law of segregation These ideas can be summarized in the following way: For every given trait, an individual inherits two alleles for the trait As an individual produces egg and sperm cells (gametes), the two alleles segregate so that each gamete contains only a single allele per trait During fertilization, each gamete contributes one allele per trait, providing the offspring with two alleles per trait There are exceptions to the law of segregation These include the alleles carried on sex chromosomes in males Because males contain one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, the male will not have two alleles per trait for genes on the sex chromosomes
CHAP 7: GENERAL BIOLOGY
Complete Dominance
Individuals can inherit two of the same allele (homozygous individuals) or two different alleles (heterozygous individuals) for any given trait In the heterozygous individual, only one allele is normally expressed, while the other allele is hidden The dominant allele will be the one expressed; the recessive allele will be hidden in the presence of a dominant allele When an individual is heterozygous for a particular trait, his or her phenotype will appear dominant, yet they still carry and can pass on the recessive allele via their gametes A recessive phenotype is only observed when the individual is homozygous for the recessive allele Keep in mind that dominant traits are not necessarily more common or more advantageous than recessive traits Those labels only refer to the pattern of inheritance that the allele follows The most common allele in the population is usually referred to as wild type By convention, a single letter is selected to represent a particular trait The dominant allele is always notated with a capital letter while the recessive allele is notated with a lowercase letter A monohybrid cross is a breeding between two parents (the P generation) where a single trait is analyzed The offspring of this cross are called the F1 generation A breeding between two F1 offspring will produce the next generation, F2, and so on When the genotypes of parents are known for a speci c trait, a Punnett square can be used to predict the genotypes of the offspring In order to use a Punnett square, the genotypes of both parents must be known The potential gametes of each parent are determined and every possible combination of gametes is matched up in a matrix in order to determine every genotype of the potential offspring A ratio of the phenotypes of the offspring is expressed as dominant:recessive Mendel worked with many traits in the pea plant He found that when he crossed a truebreeding (homozygous) plant of a dominant phenotype to a true-breeding plant of a recessive phenotype, 100% of the F1 offspring had the dominant phenotype However, when he bred two of the F1 offspring, he found that 75% of the F2 offspring had the
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