CHAP 9: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY in .NET framework

Drawer Data Matrix in .NET framework CHAP 9: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

CHAP 9: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
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DEVELOPMENT
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As the haploid nucleus of a sperm cell is contributed to an egg cell (also containing a haploid nucleus) during fertilization, the resulting cell is termed a zygote The zygote begins cell division by mitosis, which produces a ball of identical cells the embryo In humans, the rst eight weeks of development constitute embryonic development and all development after eight weeks constitutes fetal development The human gestation period is 266 days These nine months are divided into trimesters Embryonic development is complete within the rst trimester
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Fertilization
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Sperm have the ability to survive about 48 hours in the female system, while an egg cell only survives about 24 hours Sperm deposited prior to or right after ovulation are capable of fertilizing the egg, which should happen in the upper third of the fallopian tube While 200 to 500 million sperm are typically released during ejaculation, only about 200 will make it to the egg cell Secretions from the female system will change the membrane composition of the sperm near its acrosome In this way, when the sperm bumps into the egg, the contents of its acrosome will be released due to membrane instability This will allow the sperm to penetrate the corona radiate (outer layer) of the egg Next the sperm must pass through the next layer of the egg, the zona pellucida The rst sperm to pass through the zona pellucida will pass its nucleus into the egg This will cause a depolarization in the membrane of the egg, which will make it impenetrable to fertilization by other sperm The nuclei of the egg and sperm fuse, creating the zygote
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Embryonic Development
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About one day after fertilization, the zygote performs its rst mitotic division, becoming an embryo This initiates cleavage, which is the rapid cell division characteristic of early embryonic development Within about four days, the embryo reaches the morula stage, in which it consists of a ball of cells During early cleavage, the embryo may split into two, which results in identical twins By about six days, the center of the embryo hollows out and becomes lled with uid The embryo is now termed a blastula or blastocyst The outer cells of the blastocyst are the trophoblast, which will aid in implantation and the development of extraembryonic membranes and the placenta The inner cell
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PART IV: REVIEWING PCAT BIOLOGY
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mass of the blastocyst will continue development as the embryo It is the source of embryonic stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into any cell type Implantation of the embryo begins about one week after fertilization and completes by the second week The events of early embryonic development can be seen in Figure 921
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Cleavage
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2-cell stage sperm nucleus egg nucleus oviduct 2
4-cell stage 4 8-cell stage
Morula
Fertilization
Early blastocyst
fimbriae
inner cell mass
trophoblast egg 1
Ovulation
ovary 6
Implantation
FIGURE 921: Early embryonic development Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube The developing embryo moves down the tube to implant eventually in the endometrium of the uterus at the blastocyst stage of development
The blastocyst produces a critical hormone that is important in the maintenance of pregnancy Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is the signal to the corpus luteum to not degrade Normally, the degradation of the corpus luteum would cause a decline of estrogen and progesterone and would trigger menstruation At this point in development, menstruation would mean a loss of the embryo, resulting in a spontaneous abortion HCG ensures that the corpus luteum will continue to secrete estrogen and progesterone so that menstruation is delayed The next event of embryonic development is the gastrula stage During gastrulation, three primary germ layers are formed as the cells in the embryo shift into layers Once a cell enters a germ layer, its ability to differentiate into speci c cell types is limited The three germ layers and the fates of cells in these layers are as follows: Ectoderm: cells in this layer will express the genes needed to become skin cells and cells of the nervous system
Mesoderm: cells in this layer will express the genes needed to become muscles, bones, and most internal organs Endoderm: cells in this layer will express the genes needed to become the lining of internal body cavities as well as the linings of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts Once the germ layers are complete, neuralization begins the development of the nervous system Mesoderm cells form the notochord Ectoderm above the notochord starts to thicken and folds inward, forming neural folds that continue to deepen and fuse to produce a neural tube that will eventually develop into the central nervous system At this point, a head and tail region have been established in the embryo As differentiation continues, certain cells can in uence the gene expression of other cells in the process of induction via chemical messengers Communication between cells is also used to establish positional information in the embryo, which is critical to the formation of internal organs as well as the limbs Homeobox genes produce proteins that are essential for guiding the development of the shape of the embryo The proteins produced by the homeoboxes are transcription factors that serve to turn on speci c genes within cells at speci c times Induction helps ensure that the right structures occur in the right places An additional process that is necessary during embryonic development is apoptosis of certain cells While it seems odd to talk about cell death during development, it is necessary For example, the separation of ngers and toes is the result of apoptosis of the cells that at one time joined the structures The remainder of embryonic development deals with organogenesis and re ning the shape of the embryo Organ systems are developed on an as-needed basis with the most critical organs being produced rst By the fourth week, the heart is working and limbs are established By the end of embryonic development (the eighth week), all major organs are established and most are functioning
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